It is unlikely that in our country you can find a man who has never met a red cockroach. Not necessarily at home, but in schools, shops, canteens and even just on the street you can stumble upon a slender mustachioed insect, quick enough and always trying to hide in a secluded place.
But even in spite of such frequent meetings, the majority of the population know about the Prusaks most amazingly. A redhead cockroach, meanwhile, very, very interesting neighbor ...
Description of the Prusak and the structure of their bodies
Red cockroaches are typical representatives of a large suborder of cockroaches. Their appearance, behaviors and biology are in many respects similar to those of most of their relatives, even those that other enthusiasts with pride and enthusiasm keep houses and carefully cajole.
Due to its widespread prevalence, this insect has quite a number of different names. Even if you do not remember all the people's nicknames, only more than 20 names are common in various countries.
Carrying out the name of a Russian in Russia, a red cockroach immediately makes it clear that it is somehow connected with Germany. So it is - the main invasion of cockroaches on Russia coincided in time with the Napoleonic wars, and it was believed that it was from Prussia that these insects penetrated into Russia.
In the same place, in Germany, cockroaches are called by Russians, suggesting the reverse direction of the invasion.
The structure of the red cockroach as a whole is typical for the whole suborder of cockroaches. The photo shows the main parts of the body of the insect - the cephalothorax, the abdomen, the head, from which, when viewed from above, only the head remains open - everything else is completely covered by the wings:
It is interesting
Red cockroaches can not fly, but falling from a height, they are actively waving their wings, reducing the speed of the fall and ensuring a normal landing. And red cockroaches are very resistant to radiation, being the main candidates for survival on the planet in the event of a nuclear war.
A very important organ of the cockroach is the antennae, sensitive to smells and allowing the insect to communicate with other individuals. Red and mustachioed cockroach constantly cleans this wealth, and with traumatization and loss of one mustache is deprived of some information about the surrounding world.
Female cockroaches differ from males with a slightly more dense physique and short abdomen. In general, they seem somewhat larger and more massive:
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The nearest relatives of cockroaches - mantises and termites, have very much in common in the structure of the body with ordinary kitchen guests. At the same time, when meeting a mantis, he will not miss the opportunity to regale his neighbor on a systematic ladder.
The size of the red cockroach is small - only 1-1.5 cm is the body length of an adult insect. In comparison with most of its relatives, a red cockroach is considered a small species.
A characteristic feature of the structure of the body of the cockroaches is the cerci - a small tail-like outgrowth at the end of the body. This is a sign of relative primitiveness, since cerci are found mainly in very ancient insects.
On a note
Do not confuse the Prussian with the larvae of American cockroaches . Large red cockroaches, occasionally imported into our ports with bananas from tropical countries, here and there in southern cities even managed to multiply and form stable populations, but they are of a completely different kind. In this case red and long cockroaches need about the same conditions and therefore often occur together. In general, brown is the most common cockroach in the whole suborder, and the red-haired cockroach can belong to almost any species.
Lifestyle of red pests
The Prussians are generally quite defenseless against enemies. From predators they can be saved only by fast running, which determines their way of life: during the day, insects hide in various shelters, and actively feed under the cover of night.
In nature, red cockroaches occur in the Middle East and South Asia, although their home populations are much larger in number than natural ones. Because of the wide distribution in cities and human dwellings, the red cockroach became a true cosmanthropist Sinanthropus, confidently capturing more and more new territories. In the conditions of cities, towns and villages, it feels even better than in the wild.
Prusaks need not so much for normal existence and reproduction: a moderate temperature of the air (optimum - 20-25 ° C), access to water and food. Cockroaches red homemade dies when the temperature drops below -5 ° C, on which the method of getting rid of them by freezing is based.
In general, in the conditions of our country these insects can live only in rooms heated all year round. Red cockroaches in the apartment settle mainly in the kitchens and in closets, where they have access to the food reserves left on the tables by products and water in the sink.
With a lack of normal food, they are fully capable of eating what is absolutely unsuitable for human consumption. Glue on the postage stamp cockroach is enough for a few days, a rotten sheet on the house plant - for a week, and accidentally sprinkled with a tile of flour or sugar - in general a delicacy and a kind of grocery store for him.
How much red cockroaches live , depends to a large extent on the temperature of the air in their habitats. At a temperature of about 20 ° C, cockroaches live about a year, taking into account the larval stage, at slightly higher temperatures. And during this time they manage to leave enough numerous offspring ...
Red cockroaches reproduce quickly, faster than black cockroaches and even more so - decorative Madagascar. They belong to insects with incomplete transformation, and from eggs the miniature copies of adult individuals emerge from the cockroaches, differing only in the absence of wings. This stage is called a nymph and corresponds to the larval stage of beetles and butterflies.
Nymphs for two months of development molt six times, with each moult growing, and, finally, turn into a winged adult insect.
Eggs of the cockroaches develop in a unique package - ooteca, which the female wears at the end of the abdomen until the hatching of the larvae, approximately 2-4 weeks.
When hour X comes, the female ootheka lays, and from it comes 20-25 transparent white larvae.
After a few hours, they darken, and on the back of each head there are two red spots - a distinctive feature of the cockroaches.
Larvae feed on the same food as adult cockroaches.
Each female during its 10-month life has time to endure from four to ten ootecs and, thus, gives life to 250 new Prusaks. Considering that in two months each nymph also becomes an adult and can begin to multiply, by the end of life each female can acquire many thousands of descendants.
History of the conquest of the world
Very interesting is the victorious procession of red cockroaches on the planet. Due to the small size, rapid reproduction, the ability to live at moderate temperatures and unpretentiousness in the choice of food, they have managed literally over several centuries to spread all over the world.
The main distributor of cockroaches was and remains a man. It is believed that the original Crusaders or even before them - the Macedonians - brought in their bags and carts of Prussians to European cities. And here, in conditions of terrible unsanitary conditions, the cockroaches felt even better than in the wild.
Their competitors - black cockroaches - the Prusaks were forced out quickly enough. Not only that the black comrades do not multiply so fast, giving up positions in the struggle for new places of settlement, so also the cockroaches themselves eagerly eat ootecs of black cockroaches that are unattended for several weeks. As a result, black cockroaches are found mostly in villages and agricultural lands.
Not surprisingly, today the Prussians have spread to both the Americas, Africa, Europe, Australia and Oceania. They manage to dwell even where other living creatures can only live temporarily - on oil platforms, in underground storages and warehouses. But best of all they feel themselves in the dwelling of man.
Red cockroaches in the house: habitats and harm to humans
Any place in the apartment, dark enough, warm and quiet, can be a place of shelter for the cockroaches. In the ideal case, cockroaches find narrow slits in which they can touch the floor and ceiling of the abdomen and the back simultaneously.
In this case, the insect will feel completely safe, and a person is unlikely to be able to get it. If a watering point or food source is "within reach", then such a place can be called a real cockroach paradise.
On a note
The main thing is that you need a cockroach in the house - water and normal temperature. And they already find food in any case.
Red cockroaches do not bite: their jaws in principle are not able to bite the skin of a person (but sometimes they chew the cornified skin particles of sleeping people, especially in children). The only trouble that red cockroaches can deliver is the spread of bacteria and molds that move on their paws from the garbage chute straight to the dining table.
Prusaks can spread diseases such as dysentery, gastroenteritis, tuberculosis and meningitis, and so if they were seen indoors, it is better to refrain from eating.
But red cockroaches can be useful. A huge amount of scientific research around the world is carried out exactly on the Prusaks, both on accessible and sufficiently universal insects. Because of its scientific and technological progress, human civilization is partly obliged to them, the red cockroaches.