In spite of a person's desire, domestic cockroaches often become an integral part of the home. They are so accustomed to a comfortable environment created in comfortable apartments that in the wild, especially in the conditions of Russian winter, most species simply could not survive. Therefore, the title "domestic" cockroaches are quite deserved.
About how and what they live, what kinds of them are found in the apartments and how they look, what kind of danger they are to us - all this will be discussed further ...
Distinctive features of domestic cockroaches
All domestic cockroaches have a number of common signs that allow them to be considered typical representatives of the suborder Blattoptera. They are insects with incomplete transformation, and in its development there are three stages: the egg, the larva, the imago.
Eggs of cockroaches are completed in a dense chitinous capsule - ootec (in the photo the female of a cockroach with ooteca is represented):
The larvae look very much like an adult insect. The following photo shows the larvae of a red cockroach of different ages:
Larvae, or nymphs, make up the bulk of the population of domestic cockroaches. With each subsequent molt, they increase in size and more like parents.
It is interesting
Some people manage to observe a strange event: the cockroach suddenly starts to tremble unnaturally, and from it with special efforts its white copy is scrambled out. No, this is not a new kind of house cockroaches. This is how an insect looks in the first hours after molting. Very soon it will acquire the proper color.
The most important organ of a home cockroach is a tactile tendril that ensures its orientation in space.
Each cockroach has a gnawing oral apparatus, deftly grinding a wide variety of foods. This explains the omnivorous nature of the insect.
The home cockroach possesses three qualities due to which it is capable of leading a latent lifestyle for quite some time without entering into conflict with the owners of the dwelling:
- A flat body that allows an insect to instantly disappear from the field of view of a person, penetrating into narrow cracks.
- Three pairs of running feet, equipped with claws and suckers, helping the cockroach move on any surface with incredible agility.
- Activity at night - contributes to the fact that meeting a domestic cockroach and a person is not so often.
Many cockroaches can boast of the presence of two pairs of wings. However, the vast majority of species has only the rudiments of an organ intended for flights. Although homemade cockroaches and look like great flyers, but by no means they are. With a synanthropic existence, there is no need to fly, so cockroaches do not fly.
Types of domestic cockroaches
In the great variety of cockroaches there are not so many species that are firmly established in human apartments.
Some representatives of wild fauna (for example, Madagascar cockroach), accidentally being in our homes, also feel good, but, as a rule, there is no mass distribution of exotic inhabitants. However, with proper care, the species of cockroaches, which are brought from the tropics, live and reproduce fine in terrariums, although they can not be called home
The most popular is the one pictured on the photo Red house cockroach:
It is a cosmopolitan who knows no boundaries, confidently settled practically on all the latitudes of the globe. It can be recognized by characteristic yellow-brown, sometimes with a reddish tinge, color. On the pronotum, black strips can be seen.
The male is supplied with wings, and the sexually mature female can very often be found with the ootheca, which it drags behind the abdomen, and part with it only at the time of the offspring.
Here is a photo of a male cockroach:
But the photo of the female:
Black cockroach is known for no less than a cockroach. Large specimens, which exude an unpleasant smell, often frighten the tenants of the lower floors. Black house cockroaches prefer warm and wet basements, warehouses, garbage cans.
The American periplanet is another species of domestic cockroaches (see photo).
This overseas guest easily adapts to Russian apartments. He is very mobile, has well-developed wings, is aggressive. From it can suffer pets, and sometimes peacefully sleeping people. One pleases: this cockroach does not tolerate a cold snap, even zero temperature for it is fatal.
Residents of the southern regions of Russia and Central Asia are familiar with the more rare species of domestic cockroaches - the quick Egyptian and the slow-moving Turkestan. The latter are willingly bred as a food for reptiles. Both cockroaches feel great not only in human dwellings, but also in buildings where farm animals are kept.
But a photo of a Turkestan (Turkmen) cockroach:
A little more than half a century ago in the central part of Russia began to encounter a home cockroach ocher-red coloring with transparent wings and brown stripes. This insect destroys the established stereotype of the synanthropic cockroaches, as if they are attracted exclusively by the kitchen.
Representatives of this species prefer food rich in starch, which is easy to detect under the wallpaper and in the roots of old books. His nests are often found in the bedrooms, in libraries and offices, in furnishings, for which he received his name - Furniture cockroach:
Cockroaches in the house do not belong
The damage caused by domestic cockroaches is huge. They not only spoil the aesthetic appearance of the dwelling, but also create a real threat to the health of the tenants of the premises. All the evil that these insects bring to human health is called blattopeterosis.
Home cockroaches can affect people in different ways, and sometimes meeting with insects entails serious consequences. Consider the possible options for the development of events.
- Cockroach as a foreign body. Cockroaches tend to hide in narrow cracks, and therefore they can easily turn out to be a living alien body inside a person. Otolaryngologists sometimes face the problem of detecting a cockroach in the external auditory canal or in the nose. It is difficult to get out to the insect alone, it beats inside, exhausting the unfortunate patient and forcing him to panic.
- Cockroach as a provoker of allergic reactions. The information that the products of vital activity of these insects are powerful allergens is absolutely reliable. By skin tests, sensitization to allergens of domestic cockroaches in patients suffering from vasomotor rhinitis and bronchial asthma has been proven. Especially often people are allergic to moth-eaten chitinous insects.
- Cockroaches bite. Yes, unfortunately, this fact, which seemed absurd earlier, also corresponds to reality. These insects are not so peaceful as it sometimes seems. Their victims are usually the most defenseless creatures - small children. Helped by thirst and hunger, home cockroaches can gnaw a delicate peel of earwax, red lip rim and eyelids in a tightly sleeping baby. The matter is not limited to bite marks. Often, a secondary infection joins, pyoderma develops
- Cockroaches are carriers of pathogenic microorganisms. Scientists have proved the presence of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and even mites - a cockroach parasite on the body, legs and inside the insect, which does not seem to bite a person.
As you can see, it can be concluded that, regardless of whether the red, black or even brown striped cockroaches are in the house, nothing good is expected from their presence. It is better to immediately puzzle the question of how to deal with them and start acting without delay.