The appearance of domestic bedbugs, their way of life and the way they nourish them well distinguish them among all other domestic insects . To confuse these parasites with ants, cockroaches or occasional guests of the apartment is quite difficult, and just a few signs even a very far from entomology resident of a big city or a small village will be able to understand that in front of him is that bothersome night vampire.
And once seeing in the photo how homely bedbugs look, and even more so - having met them in bed, confusing them with other insects will be almost impossible.
By the way, it is the features of life and biology that the home bug can boast of, not only facilitate the task of its identification, but also complicate the struggle with it. It is the indifference of bedbugs to the quality of the room, their ability to settle in quite restless places (no cockroach can comfortably feel under the bed mattress), resistance to many insecticides and some other qualities dictate certain rules of the game, only by observing which bugs and can be expelled from the room .
But first you need to determine exactly what we have in front of us is a bug, and detailed photos will help us in this ...
How homemade bugs look, their larvae and eggs
Bedbugs home (bed, furniture, sofa - common synonyms can not be counted) - small insects of dark brown color in the adult state and lighter, almost yellow - in the larval stage (see photo):
A characteristic feature of them is a very wide in the sides, but at the same time a flat body from the back. Externally, home bugs are like flattened cockroaches, but only until they get drunk blood. A well-marked flat insect body in the picture:
An important feature of these insects is the absence of wings. All kinds of domestic bedbugs are deprived of them, and by this they are very different from most other members of the squad of semi-wings - enemies of agriculture, water meters, bedbugs, whose wings form a special body with noticeable angles and patterns.
For example, compare on the photos below what a cloak-soldier looks like and the usual home bug:
It is interesting
Scientifically refuted statements of many witnesses who claim that home bugs are flying. They basically can not do this. And the facts of the fall of these creatures on a bed or a standing person are explained by the fact that insects calmly climb onto the ceiling and, unable to restrain themselves, fall from there.
Such cases can occur with a very large number of parasites in the room, when they are hungry and try to get to the source of food in any way.
Because of the lack of wings in domestic bedbugs, the abdomen, segmented by transverse bands, is clearly visible. In adult insects, this division is especially noticeable after they are fed - their body is stretched and thickened, and as a whole they become similar to the larvae of black cockroaches. In the photo, you can see the difference between a hungry and full-bodied insect:
On a note
Talking about the variety of homebugs is not entirely incorrect from a scientific point of view. In the whole world there are about 30 types of bed bugs, very similar in appearance and differing in the details of the structure, which can only be distinguished under a microscope.
But representatives of the majority of these species do not cross each other and do not give fertile offspring. The photo shows adult specimens of some species - it is difficult for a layman to distinguish them from each other.
The size of domestic bugs is small: adult insects have a body length of 4 to 8 mm, depending on the degree of blood saturation, the size of larvae varies from 1 mm to 4 mm. The width of the body of an adult hungry bug is almost the same as the length. As you can see from the photo, the bug looks like a copper coin:
Larvae of bedbugs are also called nymphs for the fact that adults differ only in size and coloring details. The hungry larva of the first three ages has a light yellow color, its chitinous covers are transparent. Therefore, in the body of the nymph becomes clearly visible a drop of blood in the stomach after a plentiful meal (see photo):
Purely outwardly bugs can be confused only with cockroaches. And from black cockroaches, and from the cockroaches, these parasites are distinguished by the absence of two characteristic outgrowths at the end of the abdomen - the cerci. Cockroaches and their larvae are necessarily present and well marked. In the photo below, these outgrowths are clearly visible:
In addition, adult cockroaches have wings, although they do not use them for their intended purpose.
Homebugs have their own specific smell. Especially actively it is allocated by females with a secret, by which they attach eggs to different surfaces. For man, this aroma is somewhat reminiscent of the smell of fermented berries or cognac. The presence of this smell in the apartment is a clear sign of a strong infection of its parasites.
It is interesting
Compared to their relatives, house bugs smell very weak. Some of the bedbugs that live in nature are among the most odorous insects in general. Everybody knows the bug-protectors, called "stinkers" in the people, soldiers who are not eaten by birds, harmful turtles - they all have a very strong smell, which helps individuals in communication and rescues them from predators.
But about whether house bugs smell, you can only talk about: in comparison with ants or cockroaches, they smell strongly, compared to other semi-feathery - not very.
Eggs of bedbugs are small, have about a millimeter in length, are elongated and look like rice grains. At the end of them there is a small lid. All the details of the egg are clearly visible on the photo:
Such an egg, found lying separately from the colony, can be overlooked and confused with anything.
But the female bugs lay eggs mainly in places of shelters, and therefore there are masonry along with insect litter, chitin skins of nymphs and an abundance of parasites of different ages (see the example in the photo):
And in general, the reproduction of these insects occurs precisely in secluded places of the room.
Reproduction of domestic bedbugs
Bedbugs reproduce at incredible speed. Even the ubiquitous cockroaches are inferior to them in the rapidity of increasing numbers.
Each bug becomes sexually mature one month after hatching from the egg. The rate of maturation of an insect can be affected by the temperature in the room - at a temperature below 20 ° C, the larva grows within two to three months. In general, these parasites are afraid of sudden temperature changes, and in unheated rooms in the middle zone of Russia are rarely settled.
Home bugs die at a temperature below minus 22 ° C and above + 45 ° C. This is used by the services of pest control to combat them, using industrial hair dryers for the processing of individual rooms.
Each female lays about 400 eggs in its entire life, approximately 3-4 eggs once a day. No care for the offspring bugs show.
An important feature of the reproduction of bed bugs is the so-called traumatic insemination, in which the male pierces the body covers of the female with its sexual organ and inserts sperm into its abdomen. Agree, from our, human point of view, this act looks quite shocking.
Eggs develop in the female body for some time, and with a lack of nutrition they can resolve and serve as food.
Purely theoretically, according to scientists for six months, the offspring of one female domestic bug can exceed 1 billion descendants. Of course, in a real apartment of such quantities of insects do not happen, but in a few months the bloodsuckers are able to breed so much that they make the premises unfit for life.
And adult domestic bedbugs (on the scientific - imago), and their larvae feed on only the blood of a person. In this case, an adult insect when bitten inserts an anesthetic into the wound, and the person does not feel the bite itself.
The close-up photo shows how a bug bites:
But the ability to inject a nymph with a bite of an anesthetic does not yet exist, and it is the bites of young bugs that particularly disturb a person in a dream.
Home bugs and other insects in the house: friends, enemies, or just neighbors
The relationship of domestic bugs with other inhabitants of human habitation is very difficult.
To start even with the owner himself - a person: because of the specifics of their diet, bugs are forced to give themselves away from bites, and therefore their presence in the apartment is much more undesirable than the presence of, for example, cockroaches. Therefore, a person destroys domestic bedbugs with particular persistence.
But other insects in one way or another bugs interfere:
- cockroaches willingly eat eggs of bedbugs. Even though the habitats of these species of insects in the living area are different, nymphs of cockroaches often enter the colony of bedbugs and harm the eggs.
- The poison of domestic ants is deadly for bedbugs. In general, ants are peaceful, and they do not attack bugs themselves. But the bedbugs can not settle next to the colony of ants. In addition, ants, like cockroaches, are not averse to profit egg bug.
- Flycatchers, small centipedes very characteristic species, actively catch and eat bedbugs. They can not completely destroy them in an apartment, but they can, to a certain extent, influence the reproduction. However, due to the rarity of dwelling in flats, the flytraps can not be used as a tool for biological control of bedbugs.
But bugs do not harm any other insects. They are not able to eat eggs or larvae, do not compete with neighbors for food. These are all offended altruists.
It is interesting that cats who like to hunt cockroaches are absolutely indifferent to bedbugs. Perhaps they are scared away by the smell of bloodsucking parasites. Other insects - moth, fleas, flies - with cohabites just cohabit.
The life of bedbugs under a microscope
Home bugs are settled in the room as a kind of spontaneous colony-nests. There is no structure in such a settlement, but it looks just like a colony because of the dense placement of imago, nymphs, eggs and the products of vital activity of insects (see photo):
As a rule, these insects settle in any secluded places in the room, in which a stable moderate temperature is maintained and which are located near the resting place of a person.
Each bug feeds with a certain frequency. Imago is enough to eat once every five to seven days, the larvae suck blood almost daily. An adult female should at least once eat very tightly to make one egg laying.
Each larva must be shed five times before becoming an imago. It is the chitinous covers emptied by nymphs that form garbage, which creates a feeling of untidiness in the entire nest.
The photo shows the chitinous cover of domestic bedbugs dropped by them during molting:
For one molt, the nymph suffices only one full-fledged feeding, however more abundant food contributes to the better development of the insect.
If the source of food is not there, or the temperature in the room drops sharply, the insects may fall into a stupor, similar to the state of suspended animation. In this state, they can be up to a year and a half, and when a person appears next to them - get out of it and return to normal life.
Home bugs are strictly nocturnal insects. They get out of their shelters and go in search of food in the time interval from 3 to 7 am, when a person sleeps the most sound sleep. The rest of the time they spend in the nests, which are located:
- in beds and upholstered furniture, under mattresses
- under the carpets and behind the baseboards
- behind the cabinets and inside them, behind the paintings on the walls
- in sockets
- inside the system units and various household appliances.
The picture below shows where to look for bugs in the apartment first of all:
It is in such places that we should look for bedbugs to destroy them. However, the destruction itself must be carried out taking into account the increased resistance of these insects to poisoning.
Stability of bedbugs to various insecticides
Long evolution and high fertility are the reason that domestic bugs have increased resistance to various poisons. Each individual insect dies from an insecticide as quickly as a cockroach or an ant.
But among a large number of offspring of one female, an individual with a mutation will necessarily meet. This individual is able to produce an antidote - a protein that detoxifies the insecticide in the body even before its onset.
Under natural conditions such mutations are not fixed in the species, since different poisons act on insects rarely. But with the baiting of bedbugs, poison plays a role of a kind of natural selection factor that allows only mutants to survive.
Such stable insects are found among the corpses of their brethren, they give offspring, also resistant to poison, and after a few months specialists state the inefficiency of this or that drug. It is important that the reason for the appearance of such resistant mutants is the person himself: the less parasites are harassed, the less the probability of occurrence and fixation of the mutation.
It is interesting
In fact, the problem of adaptation of insects, and other pests of agriculture (viruses, bacteria, mollusks) to poisons is one of the main reasons for the development of genetic engineering. The chemical industry does not have time to develop new poisons with the speed with which pests get used to them.
Bed bugs are just one example of such survivability and the victory of the forces of nature over the human genius. At the same time, the introduction of new varieties of crops that are resistant to pests allows a person to stand literally a few steps ahead of others who want to eat his crop.
In addition, disposable treatment of the room even with an effective remedy does not guarantee the complete disposal of bedbugs: during the baiting the viability of the egg is preserved, from which the larvae are subsequently removed.
Therefore, any facility is recommended to treat the room twice with a break of five to six days, in order to recycle all the larvae. To date, several very effective drugs have been developed that allow you to fight home bugs yourself. You can get acquainted with them in the relevant sections of this site.