For a year, a man can sometimes be attacked by dozens of different types of insects, and each such bite has its consequences - from almost imperceptible to very pronounced. How the victim reacts to the attack of an insect depends, first, on the kind of arthropod, and secondly, on the individual's sensitivity to the person.
Often, insect bites do not require any special treatment - their effects go away on their own for several days. However, this is not always the case, and in certain cases, treatment may still be required.
Here are a few examples:
- bites a poisonous or even just a stinging insect - the consequences in this case can be very serious, down to severe allergic reactions, anaphylactic shock, internal hemorrhages and death;
- a bite of an insect is infected - treatment in this case sometimes requires hospitalization, as some bloodsucking parasites are able to tolerate pathogens of deadly human diseases (encephalitis, borreliosis, typhoid, etc.);
- the victim has high individual sensitivity to insect bites (some people even react to mosquito attacks with severe swelling) - it is in such cases that meetings, for example with stinging insects, can be very dangerous;
- a bite of an insect does not pass for a long time, and dermatitis develops further in its place or infection of the wound is observed due to constant scratching.
In any case, before treating insect bites, it is highly desirable to identify "aggressors": sometimes when attacking poisonous arthropods, special antidotes are required that are very species specific. And in general, the drugs used after insect bites have a completely limited field of application, in which they have the greatest effect.
On a note
Generally speaking, spiders, scolopendras and, for example, mites, are not insects (insects have only 3 pairs of legs). Nevertheless, ordinary people who do not go into entomological subtleties, their attacks are also referred to as insect bites.
In some cases, attacks of arthropods can be difficult to visually distinguish from lesions by burning plants or, for example, from the manifestation of an allergic reaction. The universal rule of clear delineation of bites from other skin ailments, unfortunately, is not.
Typically, the bite is identified by a small point through which a sting or proboscis was inserted into the skin. In the future it is around this place that there is a characteristic inflammation and swelling of the tissues.
The photo shows how the bite of a wasp looks after 2 minutes from the moment of the attack of the insect:
On a note
In order to take into account the morbidity and causes of the population's appeals to medical institutions in the Russian Federation, the normative document of the 10th revision with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) was adopted. According to ICD 10, the insect bite has code W57 (meaning "Bite or sting with non-toxic insect and other non-venomous arthropods"). This code is universal for hospitals all over the world, and it is indicated in extracts and references. The code of an insect bite in the ICD 10 does not depend on the type of insect and the severity of the consequences.
In medical practice, there is no separate specialization of a doctor who treats insect bites. Here everything depends on the consequences of the bite. Allergists, toxicologists, infectious disease specialists can participate in treatment, and in especially severe cases - surgeons and resuscitators. If the bite symptoms do not threaten the life and work capacity of the victim, the treatment is usually done by the therapist.
Different insects, different bites
Different types of insects can bite a person for different purposes - for the purpose of self-defense, or in the framework of his parasitic way of life. Depending on this, conditionally it is possible to distinguish two corresponding groups of bites:
- Bites stinging and poisonous insects (as well as some other arthropods). This includes bites (stings) of defending wasps, bees, hornets, ants, street bugs, spiders, skolopendra. The encounter with these creatures sometimes ends in severe consequences for a person - for example, with severe pain, inflammation and swelling, which even in themselves can be life-threatening, not to mention possible complications.
- Bites of parasitic arthropods - mosquitoes, bed bugs, fleas, lice, mites, flies, bloodsucker (example - elk flea) and others. Their attacks are usually not very painful, cause itching and mild edema of damaged tissues. The greatest danger of such bites is that by biting, these arthropods often transmit to the human pathogens of serious diseases.
"We only sighed with relief that the mosquito season is over, and here in the middle of October we again have bite marks on our feet. Both my husband and I have all our feet bitten by fleas, somewhere above the knee of the foot, and the child even on the body found red dots. These fleas are climbing from the basement to all the lower apartments. SES called, now we are sitting, waiting for the showdown. "
Svetlana K., Tver
Even in related insect species, the symptoms of bites can be seriously different. So, for example, the bite of a bed bug looks like a red and slightly itchy swelling, while the bite of a water bug-gladysch is very painful, similar to the symptoms of a wasp sting, and usually causes severe swelling. And the difference is that the bed bug bites to imperceptibly get drunk at night with blood, and gladysh bites a person only within the framework of self-defense.
Bites most often attacking insects are useful, as they say, know "in person." Let's characterize and remember their main distinguishing features.
So, the bites of bed bugs, which have already been mentioned above, usually have well-marked chains, due to which they are easily recognized:
Attacks of these insects are relatively safe: there are no known cases of transmission of any infections. However, from time to time the symptom of bites of these insects, especially in children, can become pronounced an allergic reaction with severe edema and an increase in body temperature.
The photo below shows the bites of a bed bug on the foot of a child:
The bites of the fleas are quite painful , and differ from the attacks of the bedbugs by a clearly visible red dot in the center (during the bite the insect literally bites into the skin with the head - see the example in the photo below):
In rare cases, these insects can cause infection with very dangerous infections - plague, encephalitis, anthrax, brucellosis and some others.
Bites of ticks cause soft tissue softening and the formation of a noticeable cone. Often at the site of penetration of the tick, damage remains to the skin, characterized by a characteristic "ring" arrangement: a brightly colored center is surrounded by a pale ring, and then again with a red patch:
Ticks are the cause of infection with encephalitis and no less dangerous lime-borreliosis.
Bites of bees, bumblebees, wasps, hornets, skolopendrons, tarantulas, scorpions and some spiders are very painful, and lead to the development of severe tumors and edema in the affected, and can cause serious intoxication and allergies.
The photo shows the consequences of a wasp sting in the face:
The bite of the spider of the karakurt, preferring sandy habitats in the southern regions of Russia, compared to other arthropods is not very painful, but, however, leads to an incredibly difficult, affecting almost the entire body of the affected consequences. In the event of an attack by a female in the mating season, a bite can lead to death.
Bites of lice usually cause severe itching and slight redness. As a rule, these parasites attack massively, because of what they can seriously deprive a person of peace of mind. In addition, lice can infect their victim with typhus.
Bites of leeches and horseflies are "famous" for heavy bleeding and small local edema.
The bites of the so-called sand fleas are big painful bumps - this is the swollen body of an insect that has crept under the skin. In our country, to meet with sand fleas, fortunately, will not succeed, but, for example, on the beaches of Thailand and India, these parasites can be easily hooked.
Well, finally, well-known to all of us mosquito bites. As a rule, the result of the attack of these insects is a relatively mild (and in some people - almost imperceptible) itching. However, with massive bites, a person's condition can greatly deteriorate, including fever, nausea and vomiting.
In the photo there is a mosquito at the moment of bite:
Despite the fact that the bites of many insects have certain distinctive features, it is nevertheless always useful to determine exactly which insect bites after all. This is especially true for pregnant women and young children, when the treatment must take into account all the pros and cons, taking a decision on taking a particular drug.
Consultations for parents (on the part of doctors) about insect bites are significantly complicated if it is not clear who actually bitten the baby. The treatment of the bite of the "unknown" insect may not be optimal, and does not always guarantee a reliable result: imagine that the child was bitten by a poisonous spider, but the parents vaguely suggest that it was, for example, a bite of a wasp ...
"If you say the feelings, it's very painful. Pain is the first thing that is remembered. At first I thought that I had stumbled on a hornet's nest, but the wasps do not bite so painfully. Yes, and a special reaction has never observed - swollen and swollen, and then it's in the heat, then in the cold throws, my leg is cyanotic somehow, all shakes. Neighbors then enlightened that they were accustomed to hornets, and I was lucky that I got off with two bites. But this is really horror! I'm afraid to think that it would be if they bitten the child. "
Some symptoms and complications with insect bites
As already mentioned above, the consequences of insect bites can be different: it depends on the sensitivity of the victim himself and on the species of the arthropod. So, for example, the result of an attack of a stinging insect is determined basically by the reaction of the human body to the injected poison, and the insect species here goes to the background.
In general, the most common symptoms typical for insect bites include the following:
- local reddening of the skin, characteristic for bites of almost all insects;
- itching or pain, the degree of manifestation of which depends on the individual sensitivity of the person and the composition of injected under the skin enzymes;
- small or extensive, and sometimes spreading to the whole body swelling;
- dermatitis arising in response to mass biting;
- a high temperature, characteristic in the majority for victims from stinging insects and spiders (however, the temperature can rise and with multiple bites of bed bugs and even mosquitoes);
- general intoxication of the body, accompanied by headaches, nausea, chills, enlarged lymph nodes.
In some cases, in response to the bites of poisonous spiders, tropical ants or hornets, extensive subcutaneous hemorrhages, Quincke's edema, anaphylactic shock can develop. Another serious and quite dangerous symptom may be ulcers, appearing, for example, in the place of non-healing bites of tropical (sandy) fleas (more precisely, they are not even completely bitten, but the consequences of implantation of the flea female under the skin).
In the photo - bites of insect parasites (linen lice), whose treatment did not start on time, as a result of which pustular inflammations developed on the affected areas:
As a rule, small swelling and itching bites do not require special treatment: within a few days they will pass by themselves. In the first place, those bites that are accompanied by severe swelling, inflammation, allergic reactions and poisoning are required.
Insect bites in children
In general, when bites of insects in children develop the same effects as in adults, but in children, certain symptoms are sometimes very pronounced, and sometimes even take a dangerous form. It is in children most often there are extensive rashes, the temperature rises, for example, in the case of an attack of Hymenoptera insects (bees, wasps, bumblebees, hornets).
At the same time, children are not hypersensitive and, as a consequence, they rarely develop Quincke's edema or anaphylactic shock, in comparison with adults.
As practice shows, one of the problems with insect bites in children becomes their nervous excitement in response to pain and itching, as well as constant combing of affected areas of the skin, which can lead to infection in the wound. The task of the parents in this case is, if possible, to treat the bite site with suitable means for the kids, removing the itching, antiseptic wound, and also to distract the child from his misfortune, for example, by an engaging game.
Treatment of mosquito bites, fleas, bugs and other small bloodsuckers
Usually, the main task in the treatment of bites of small, blood-sucking insect parasites is to remove the itching and reduce the swelling of the affected skin. More often this problem has to be solved in children, especially the smallest ones, which sometimes react very acutely even to seemingly innocuous mosquito bites.
The first thing to do is lubricate such a bite with a suitable ointment or cream. Good for this fit hydrocortisone ointment, Menovazine, Fenistil-Gel, Mosquitol or Off for the treatment of insect bites in children. It is important only before use to study the instructions to the tool and assess the possibility of its use in this particular situation - taking into account the age of the child, the state of his health, etc. (it is recommended to consult a doctor).
In those situations when the child strongly, to the blood, combed the bites, it makes sense to grease the balm with the Rescuer or Levomekol. This will protect the wound from infection. With a strong itch and swelling it is useful to put a cold on the bite and distract the child with a game.
On a note
Homeopathy with insect bites is useless. Such remedies, except that they soothe the bitten by the thought that he was treated. No homeopathic ointments have any therapeutic effect.
In some cases, after biting even small parasitic insects, the injured person must be taken to the hospital - in particular, if the following alarming symptoms appear:
- Enlargement of lymph nodes.
Diseases that parasitic insects can tolerate are many. These are life-threatening typhus, malaria, plague, brucellosis and many others. Therefore, with the first symptoms described above, the victim should immediately show the doctor.
On a note
The vast majority of malaria-afflicted people around the world are children under the age of 5. Therefore, their condition after mass bites of mosquitoes should be watched especially carefully.
What to do if a bee, a wasp or hornet has bitten
The first thing to do if you were stung by an insect is to check if there is a sting in the wound (although it is left only by bees, in which it, in contrast to wasps and hornets, jagged).
If the bee has stung, as soon as possible, carefully remove the stinger from the skin (for example, tweezers). Keep in mind that if you try to grasp the sting with your fingers, the bubble with the poison located above the torn sting will be squeezed (see the example in the photo below), and an additional part of the poison will come under the skin, intensifying the pain.
Then from fresh wound it is necessary to try to suck the poison. At the same time, you can not squeeze it out with your fingers - this only increases blood circulation and leads to a rapid proliferation of edema. Two or three applications to the mouth of the mouth will be enough, do not spend on sucking the poison for more than 1 minute.
On a note
It is useful immediately after sucking off a part of the poison to lubricate the wound with some antiseptic - for example, hydrogen peroxide.
Then a cold compress is applied to the bite site: the cold will narrow the blood vessels and reduce the rate of absorption of the poison into the blood (for allergy sufferers this is especially important, since this minimizes the dangerous effect of the poison on the body as a whole, and the toxins continue to decompose continuously in the skin without getting in large quantities in the blood).
The person who was bitten by a stinging insect should be closely watched. If you have anxious symptoms of a dangerous allergy (shortness of breath, headache, pain in the heart, etc.), you should immediately call the ambulance and get the appropriate advice. Most likely, at least recommendations will be given on the intake of antihistamines (Suprastin, Dimedrol), while the arrival of a doctor is expected.
If the victim has previously experienced severe reactions to insect bites, he should always carry a special autoinjector with epinephrine (epipen), or a set of syringes and injecting equipment prescribed to him by the doctor. Such funds must be used immediately after bite without waiting for the manifestation of allergy: in some cases, the allergy is so rapidly developing that literally two minutes is enough to make a person lose consciousness.
Treatment of mites bites
The first thing to do if the mite has already sucked in is to carefully remove it from the wound.
It is dangerous to try to unscrew the tick from the wound. At first glance, it may seem that he so deeply immerses his head in the skin that it is impossible to pull it out, but it will only turn out to be unscrewed. This is a mistake: when twisting it is very high risk that the head of the tick will come off and remain in the wound.
After removing the tick at the site of the bite, there is usually a small lump. It's not scary - it's enough to lubricate the wound with iodine or hydrogen peroxide for disinfection. The same is done if the head of the parasite still remains in the wound.
After a tick bite, the doctor should be treated in the following cases:
- If the tick bites in an area with a high risk of encephalitis infection. For Russia, this is the Urals and Siberia up to the Far East, for Kazakhstan - mountain areas in the east of the country, in Ukraine there are no such areas. Usually people know that they are in an encephalito-dangerous area, and take precautions to prevent bite of ticks.
- If the place of the bite of the tick appeared clearly outlined red circles and spots (this is a sign of borreliosis Lyme, which is treated only in the hospital).
- If several days after the bite of the tick began to show symptoms of encephalitis - headache, nervous disorders.
A tick removed from the wound should be placed in a glass vial and handed over for analysis.
No antibiotics can be used alone with tick bites! All funds are assigned only after diagnosis and only in the hospital.
If a patient is diagnosed with Lyme disease, he is prescribed a course of taking antibiotics.
If the victim is bitten in the encephalitis zone, he is injected with a special serum with anti -encephalitis antibodies. This is expensive, and not every hospital has such facilities. Nevertheless, no home treatment in this case will not help.
First aid with bites of poisonous spiders
The treatment of bites of poisonous spiders is somewhat similar to that of bites of wasps and hornets, but due to the increased danger of poison for human life, is even more radical.
The first thing to do is:
- Suck the poison out of the wound. Some naturalists recommend even making a cut with a blade or knife on the wound and squeezing blood, but if there is no experience and a clean knife at hand, such actions can be dangerous, so it is better not to exercise them;
- Gently knead the wound until the blackening of the serving blood;
- As soon as possible get to the nearest hospital.
No antihistamines and tablets with bites of karakurts and scorpions will not help. The only effective remedies in this situation are special sera with the corresponding antibodies. During delivery of the victim to the hospital, he can be symptomatically treated: to bring down the temperature, if it is too high, to give painkillers.
But in the ideal case, the bites of insects need not be treated, but warned. For this, when traveling to nature, you should:
- Dress in clothes with discreet colors and in one that covers the maximum of the surface of the body;
- In places with a lot of mites wear long-sleeved shirts, tuck them in pants, tuck into socks. It is also desirable to wear a windbreaker with puffs on the wrists and ankles;
- Do not drink from opaque vessels - if a wasp comes into the bottle and then gets into the esophagus and bites from the inside, the situation can turn out to be very heavy;
- Eat minimum sweet on nature;
- When a stinging insect is found, a spider, a nest, it is time to leave;
- Do not check for hollows and holes;
- Regularly examine each other for the presence of ticks on the body. Particular attention should be paid to the scalp, ears, armpits, groin;
- Use repellents for those areas of the body that are not covered with clothing;
- Use mosquito nets and mosquito nets.
Remember: more and more people die from insect bites all over the world in general and in our country in particular, than from attacks of large mammals. And in most cases, such deaths are due to inattention, neglect of the elementary rules of safe behavior in nature and the certainty that "maybe, will carry". Therefore, be careful and careful, take care of yourself!