Generally speaking, insect bites in their manifestations have much in common with various skin diseases, injuries and allergic reactions: some of them can be easily confused, for example, with burns from nettle or hogweed, and others - take for the characteristic symptoms of allergic dermatitis.
Below in the photo shows the bites of typical blood-sucking insects. The mosquito:
Fresh traces on the skin after the "feast" of bed bugs:
And in this photo - the consequences of nettle burn:
Nevertheless, insect bites can still be distinguished from skin damages of a different nature - albeit quite similar. There are some signs and symptoms that indicate exactly the consequences of an attack of insects:
- A typical location. For example, burns from various plants are rarely found on the neck, face or shoulders, but this localization for bites of flies, midges, mosquitoes or bedbugs is absolutely natural.
- The presence of skin damage in the form of a point, sometimes with local hemorrhage. In the center of bites of the most diverse insects, you can often see an obvious place of puncture of the skin. In addition, from the poison or enzymes of insects (not only bloodsucking) can develop subcutaneous hemorrhage and form a small hematoma.
- The amount of damage and their size. A single swelling on the body is clearly not evidence in favor of allergies, and vice versa - a multiple small rash often speaks about an allergic reaction.
Unfortunately, in practice it is not always easy to distinguish an allergic reaction or skin diseases from the bites of some insects. Moreover, some dermatitis themselves can be the result of regular or numerous bites, so in cases of serious doubts and fears, it is better to consult a doctor.
Insect bites can be both practically harmless and occurring literally in a few hours, and extremely dangerous, capable of leading to extensive hemorrhages, edema and even anaphylactic shock with a possible fatal outcome. Again, there are no uniform frames here: for example, mosquito bites that are harmless enough for adults can turn out to be a strong allergic reaction for children, a high temperature and a generally heavy condition.
The photo below shows the bites of bugs on the body of an adult:
Multiple flea bites:
And on this photo - a bite of a wasp :
Different types of insect bites can be divided into several groups according to external signs and the severity of the consequences and complications caused.
The first group includes light, unobtrusive, almost uninteresting bites. They are left, for example, single small gnats or red forest ants. The person may not notice the consequences of such attacks at all - on his skin after them there are only small reddening or just dots.
In the photo - the ant tries to bite a person:
The second group also includes comparatively light, but more pronounced and, as a rule, numerous bites of insects: for example, mosquitoes, bugs, fleas and lice. The attack of one such abuser is often unobtrusive and does not attract much attention, but these insects "take" by massiveness - and this already threatens with severe itching, allergy, and sometimes fever (for example, in children). The victim usually gives a very colorful description of his feelings, precisely because of the large area of the bitten surface of the body.
That summer we went to rest on the pond, so this was a nightmare, by the evening all the bitten people went. Komar'ya - not measured! Sasha's face was all swollen, the temperature rose, and started to feel sick. Then another week all stained ...
In the photo there is a mosquito at the moment of bite:
On a note:
It's interesting to note that when bed bugs begin to spawn in the house (which is not uncommon in our 21st century), many people do not believe in the presence of insects in the house until now, writing off redness in themselves, and especially in children, for an allergic reaction. They sin at the same time with anything you like-washing powder, irritation from clothing, allergies from fruits, coffee, etc. Until one day they find a bug in their bed or bed ...
The third group consists of bites that cause a pronounced local reaction in the form of severe pain, swelling and redness, with the possible development of serious swelling and allergic reactions, up to anaphylactic shock. This includes the bites of wasps, hornets, bees, some tropical ants, individual species of riders, large horseflies, etc.
Such bites (especially in children) require the closest attention, since in some cases they can endanger human life. Even a single bite of a hornet is often fatal.
The photo shows the consequences of a bite of a hornet:
Sledge at the time of bite:
In addition to the insects mentioned above, there are also other arthropods, whose bites within the framework of the above classification should be classified as separate groups. For example, you can identify mites that are carriers of serious human diseases, as well as poisonous spiders, scolopendrons, scorpions, which also represent a serious danger.
It should be borne in mind that even if the insect bite itself does not cause catastrophic consequences, in some cases with it, agents of deadly infections can be brought into the bloodstream.
At the same time, there is an interesting dependence: the most painful and pronounced bites practically never lead to infection with anything, and vice versa - those kinds of bites that are least noticeable, are sometimes especially dangerous. As an example, we can cite mites, bites which are dangerous for the transfer of encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis, malarial mosquitoes, and also fleas capable of spreading a variety of diseases, of which the plague, encephalitis and anthrax are most known.
On a note
From the epidemiological point of view, the most dangerous biting insects are parasites. The causative agents of brucellosis, plague, encephalitis, etc., learned during the evolution through parasites to spread between their victims.
But stinging insects - wasps, bees, hornets - bite only in exceptional cases, defending themselves or protecting their nest. Therefore, bacteria and viruses (even if infected with such an insect) would not have a greater chance of being passed on to a person or an animal.
Bites of insect parasites
And now let's take a closer look at the illustrative examples of what the bites of certain insect species look like and what features. Let's start with those who most often attack people - insect parasites.
For an example, here are some photos showing how insects look at the moment of bite:
In the vast majority of cases, the bites of parasitic insects are felt rather weakly (except, perhaps, flea), and attract attention only when the attack was massive. A striking example of this - the bites of bed bugs presented in the picture below, unfortunately, are quite common insects in apartments and houses to this day:
A characteristic feature of bites of bed bugs is the alignment of them in long chains (paths). So, it is for bugs that the bites are characterized by three points located in one short line (this helps to determine which insect was bitten at night: a mosquito or a bug).
Bites of fleas also have a specific appearance (see the example in the photo):
Traces from flea bites usually have well-marked single red spots in the center. This is explained by the fact that when the flea bites, it has to plunge almost all of its head into the skin:
As a rule, traces from the attack of these insects are noticeably less than after bites of bugs. "Paths" of red points on the body can also be present, but very short, usually not more than 2-3 points.
Another example of biting insects, which can only be called conditionally domestic, are lice. Head and pubic lice never leave "paths" from bites and attack only the hairy areas of the body (sometimes even eyelashes and eyebrows), because for life and reproduction they need to fasten their nits on the victim's hair:
However, when talking about these all known insects, we should not forget about the more rare, but still encountered in the civilized world of clothing (linen) lice. In the course of evolution, they have adapted to bite a person for any parts of the body and not depend on his hair cover.
The characteristic difference between lice bites is bluish spots on constantly attacked places and scabs from scratching. In the photo there are traces from the bites of these insects:
As mentioned above, single bites of domestic insects do not generally bother, however, for example, regular attacks of bed bugs can even cause nervous breakdowns, insomnia or anemia in children.
But most of the insect parasites are still found in the wild. In the tropics, mosquito bites can cause malaria. In the taiga and tundra, the bites of local blood-sucking insects-the nests-are a real calamity, especially for unprepared "newcomers". In comparison with the usual "urban" mosquitoes, attacks of these insects lead to much more severe consequences: blisters on the skin, a long debilitating itching.
Perhaps the leading position among all the parasitic insects inhabiting our country is occupied by horseflies - large flies that live everywhere near water bodies and have very painful bites. Attacking, the horsefly actually cuts off a piece of victim's skin, and then injects into the open wound a special enzyme that prevents blood clotting.
In the photographs you can see the bites of these insects:
How do stings of bees, wasps, hornets, poisonous ants and other stinging insects look like?
Unlike most parasites, stings of stinging insects are very painful. And this is not surprising, because the purpose of their attack is precisely to deter the enemy from severe pain.
In the poison of wasps, bees, some stinging ants and their relatives contains a large number of allergens that can lead to the development of extensive swelling, hives, fever and general intoxication of the body. In some cases, such bites lead to the death of the victim, especially if the insects attack the whole swarm.
Photo of a hornet sting:
But the photo of the honey bee at the time of the bite - its sting is stuck in the skin of a person along with a part of the insect's insides:
Photo of a bullet-ant - its bites are so strong that they are considered by the degree of soreness by some of the most powerful among insects in general:
On a note
Bites of giant Asian hornets in some countries lead to more deaths than attacks of any wild animals (for example - Japan, where about 40 people die from the attack of hornets per year).
If during stinging you did not have time to notice and recognize which insect you were bitten by, then first aid should be provided on a universal scheme in such cases with an emphasis on preventing the development of a severe allergic reaction:
- visually assess the presence of a sting in the wound, and if it is, then remove it;
- suck the poison out of the wound (without spending more than 1 minute);
- disinfect the affected area with hydrogen peroxide, iodine or zelenka;
- apply a cold compress to the site of the bite;
- take an antihistamine (Suprastin, Dimedrol - but only in the absence of contraindications, with a list of which can be found in the instructions for the appropriate drug).
"This summer I could not stand it and called specialists to deal with the hornets' nest. For two years these two wasps have settled at the shed. First they tried to get rid of themselves, smoked, but after they had bitten their granddaughter, they did not save. The child was swollen all over, it was necessary even to call an ambulance, all were frightened. Two bites in the face, one on the collarbone, were afraid that the swelling in the lungs would pass, the temperature rose strongly. It's a good thing that everything turned out ok, but we managed to get rid of the wasps, at the same time, they also stole the ants. "
Anna Valeryevna, St. Petersburg
Bites of spiders, ticks, scolopenders and other "non-insects"
In everyday life, ticks, spiders and scolopenders are often called insects, although these are not at all (insects have only 3 pairs of legs).
Often the mite is detected by the victim too late - when the parasite has already dug into the skin (when an attack they are allocated special anesthetic substances). The sting of the tick is usually large enough, but in some cases it may not differ greatly in color from surrounding tissues. A characteristic feature of it is the circular shape: the red center of the spot is often surrounded first by a pale, and then by brighter "rims".
On the photo below, these "rings" are clearly visible:
Also determine the belonging of the bite to the tick can be on a dense and non-painful blister, remaining after the parasite detaches. In the center of this bubble there is always a trace from the hole through which bloodsucking occurred.
In the case of a tick bite, you should immediately contact an infectious disease doctor and take the necessary tests to exclude encephalitis and borreliosis (preferably with the most bitten bite with you). If this is not possible, then you need to closely monitor your condition and "listen" to the body: the slightest indisposition can indicate a developing disease.
Often, a tick may not cause significant harm to the health, but the bites of poisonous scolopenders are almost always very dangerous. So, the attack of the Crimean scolopendra, or drupes, ends, as a rule, with extensive edema, an increase in body temperature to 39 ° C, hemorrhages and painful inflammation. The pain from her bite persists for several days.
Unfortunately, even this grave condition is not the worst thing that can happen after the attack of the scolopendra: the tropical species of these arthropods are deadly to humans.
On the photo - Crimean scolopendra:
The "insect" bite in this case consists of two points - this is how the injured scolopendra attack results are usually described. Outwardly, it really looks like two characteristic points, because the arthropod is piercing the skin with two jaws.
Another "not insects" that leave significant traces on the human body are leeches. Their attacks are noteworthy because the wound that forms is bleeding for a very long time, and from this people lose much more blood than from sucking the leech itself.
In the photo - bites of leeches:
Pains of some spiders can be quite painful. Among them there are many species whose bite is deadly to humans - for example, Karakurt, or, otherwise, the steppe widow:
The most pronounced are the effects of the bites of Karakurts in May-June, when the spiders have a breeding season, and it is in large females. Nevertheless, it is believed that the bites of these spiders are a deadly threat only for children and the elderly.
On a note
Ticks also belong to the class of arachnids, although their parasitic way of life is very different from that of predator spiders.
Males of all kinds of Karakurts are much smaller than females, and rarely bite a person.
Tarantula is also a well-known poisonous spider, although in most cases it does not pose a serious threat to humans. However, his bite is very painful, and both sensations and effects are reminiscent of a bee sting.
Below is a photo of a tarantula bite:
It is interesting
"Lucky", who experienced the bites of different spiders, say that the more dangerous the spider, the less painful its bite. For example, when walking through hard and thorny grass, a person may not even notice a bite of a karakurt, while a tarantula bite immediately causes severe pain. But in half an hour the situation changes: the bite of the tarantula can stop ache, and from the bite of the steppe widow a person can lose consciousness.
Scorpions that live in our country are also dangerous for humans. Their bite is very painful, can lead to anaphylaxis and death.
In the photo there is a yellow scorpion, which can be found in Dagestan or the southern Volga region:
Specificity of insect bites in children
Often children react to insect bites more acutely than adults, because their body is not yet "ripe", and immunity is not sufficiently strengthened. On their skin, the symptoms of bites may appear more clearly, and blisters and swelling last longer.
In the photo there are traces of bites in the child, left by bugs living in the apartment:
On the other hand, children are less likely to experience severe allergic reactions to insect bites because of the absence of previous sensitization - a certain "body of experience" accumulated by the body, necessary for a violent immune response.
Speaking about the specifics of insect bites in children, we can not say about the rules for treating babies: it is necessary to take into account the characteristics of the child's organism and use only those medicines that are allowed for use in children. Unfortunately, many adults forget about this and give the kids even more aggravating and complicating the already serious consequences of meeting insects.
It is a known fact that with a very large number of bloodsucking insects - mosquitoes, bugs or lice - their bites can lead to the occurrence of anemia in children due to regular loss of blood and getting into it an anticoagulant enzyme. Therefore, if the bites of insects in the child appear regularly, you need to begin the fight against parasites in the apartment as soon as possible.
If insects have bitten a pet
Insect bites in dogs, cats and other pets are often less noticeable than on humans - due to thick wool or feathers. Animals may not even express their "feelings", and suffer in silence, but this does not mean that insect attacks on them can be completely ignored.
In dogs, bites of mites that leave large cones in the region of ears and occiput most often attract attention. Infected with encephalitis dogs can not, but for them mites are dangerous transfer of other serious diseases. So, for example, pincers transfer pyroplasmosis, from which the animal can die even during the first day.
More rarely, animals are attacked by stinging insects. The consequences of these bites are generally similar to those in humans. In the photo you can see how the paw of the cat was stung from the bite of the wasp:
Cats and dogs, regularly walking on the street, are often disturbed by fleas and withers. The bites of these insects on the animal are not always easy to see, so the masters usually learn about parasites from the changed behavior of pets: constant combing of wool, restlessness, restlessness.
Photo of withered:
Domestic birds - especially chickens - often bite bed bugs, settling in economic buildings. During mass reproduction, insects can lead to loss of egg production of birds, slowing the growth of chickens and their freezing.
And the following photos show examples of birds that are dominated by so-called chicken fleas:
A similar situation can be observed in other economic animals and birds - rabbits, ducks, pigeons. The latter, by the way, are often disturbed by bird bloodsuckers, which carry some of the deadly diseases for these birds.
And finally, we will touch on one important topic that is of interest to many tourists - insect bites in Thailand, India, Vietnam and the Caribbean. These resorts are very popular among Russians, but many are frightened by stories about "monstrous" insects that live in those places.
Indeed, on the beaches of these countries, one can easily bite a sand flea by the leg, which then remains under the skin as an internal parasite and can lead to suppuration, ulcer development and even gangrene.
Photo of a sand flea under the skin and after extraction:
Tropical hornets - also quite common local "inhabitants" - are considered one of the most dangerous insects in the world, and South American ants are the owners of the most painful bite among insects in general.
Nevertheless, this does not mean that it is impossible to rest in the tropics, and that it is not worth traveling there. You just need to know which insects bite a person in a particular country and a specific place, and also have a specially prepared first aid kit and be careful in dealing with an unknown nature.
And more: do not hesitate to go with the bites of insects to the hospital - in any country this step often saves many lives.