Further you will learn:
- What types of remedies for insect bites exist today and how they fundamentally differ from each other;
- Features of application of repellant sprays, aerosols, gels and creams - what should be the chemical composition of a really effective remedy and how one form is better or worse than another;
- What is insecticide-repellent smoke chips and spirals from insects and in what cases are they advisable to use;
- When it makes sense to use electric ultraviolet destroyers of insects and whether ultrasonic mosquito repellers are effective, as advertisers state;
- What else can be protected from the bites of bloodsucking insects , as well as from bites of wasps, hornets and leeches, and what to do if insects still bite you ...
Generally speaking, the funds currently used to protect against insect bites are very diverse, and far from being limited to conventional creams and sprays. All kinds of repellent bracelets, ultrasonic repellents, electric insect killers, special protective clothing, and smoke scourers and spirals that repel the midget - all this sometimes gives a good effect in practice, but creates a consumer problem for the user.
And really, the question arises: which remedy for insect bites is better for this or that case - for fishing, walking in the woods or, for example, resting in a gazebo at the cottage? .. In this matter, we will continue to try to understand more thoroughly.
All the variety of commercially available products designed to protect against insect bites can be divided into the following groups according to the principle of their action:
- Chemicals of repellent action for application to the body or clothing. The form of their release can be different - creams, gels, sprays, aerosols, as well as various accessories for wearing (for example, bracelets). The active substance of such agents is a special chemical compound possessing repellent (that is, repelling) action in relation to a certain group of insects. And in one preparation can contain several different in nature chemical repellents;
- Chemical preparations of repelling and destroying action of a fumigation type. Simply put - these funds protect against insects and their bites by the formation of smoke (or vapor) containing a certain amount of insecticide substance. In small doses and with not very long exposure, such smoke scares away insects, but in higher concentrations or with prolonged exposure can kill them. This includes, for example, smoke bombs from insects, spirals from mosquitoes, fumigators for household use;
- Ultrasonic insect repellers. Despite the fact that today some manufacturers try to position such devices as a means of scaring away almost any insects (bugs, fleas, flies, cockroaches, etc.), however, practice shows that in reality the effect, and sometimes not always, is achieved only in relation to mosquitoes;
- Electric lamp insect killers - are used to protect against insect bites both in a closed room (apartment, house) and on the street. The device massively attracts the mosquito with the light of a special ultraviolet lamp and destroys insects with the help of an electric discharge. Such devices can work not only from the socket, but also from the built-in battery, which is contaminated by a solar battery;
- And, finally, special protective clothing is a very effective tool against insect bites-both blood-sucking and any other.
Let's consider in more detail the important nuances of using these types of tools.
Sprays and aerosols from insect bites: how effective and safe are they?
In general, sprays and aerosols from insect bites are rather convenient means for a single or a rare irregular application. After they are applied to the skin or clothing, a small amount of chemical repellant repelling mosquitoes, mosquitoes, mosquito and / or mites remains, depending on the purpose of the preparation.
On a note
The difference between sprays from aerosols is that in the case of a spray, the active compound is expelled from the nozzle under the pressure created by pressing the nebulizer, while in the case of using an aerosol can, the composition is expelled due to the expansion of the liquefied gas present in the can. Thus, the use of an aerosol can greatly facilitate the task if necessary to process a large number of people in a short period of time.
Many sprays from insects (and aerosol formulations) contain DETA (diethyltoluamide) and pyrethroids (for example, alpha-cypermethrin) as active ingredients. Individual preparations are based on more modern and safe repellents (for example, repellent IR3535, which is a derivative of the natural amino acid beta-alanine).
The amount of classic and quite effective repellent DETA in sprays usually varies depending on which protection from the bites of which insects is intended to provide the drug and how long this protection should be kept. For example, sprays and aerosols for the so-called professional protection against insect bites in wildlife can contain up to 50% of DETA, while preparations to protect children from mosquito bites during a walk contain 7-10% of DETA.
Means with a DETA content of more than 15% provide a fairly well-expressed repelling of ticks, but for reliable protection it is desirable to choose preparations that additionally have an insecticide from the pyrethroid group.
In general, a high-quality spray or aerosol allows you to confidently defend yourself against mosquito and mosquito bites anywhere - at least in the suburban area, even in the forest or fishing.
On a note
It is believed that with a single and irregular use of funds from insect bites, the concentration of DETA in them up to 10% is safe for infants. If the baby needs to be protected from insects on a regular basis, then it's better to do without the use of chemical repellents.
The most popular sprays and aerosols from insect bites are the same name of the repellent brand DETA, as well as Mosquitall, Off, Neotox, Taiga and others. Some manufacturers have a large number of tools, targeting different age groups and protecting against different insects.
A significant disadvantage of sprays and aerosol formulations is the possibility of side effects when inhaled and prolonged contact with the skin, especially in people prone to allergic reactions. Sometimes, with rare application problems do not arise, but if the agent is used regularly, the probability of skin irritation, intoxication and allergic reactions increases.
Repellent gels and creams
Gels and cream from insect bites are similar in principle to sprays and aerosol preparations by the principle of their action, the only difference being that instead of spraying the product is applied to the exposed areas of the skin and rubbed over them. The active substance of such gels and creams is, as a rule, all the same diethyltoluamide (DETA).
On a note
In addition, for children are also available preparations in the form of milk for application to the skin - protect against mosquito bites, mosquitoes, midges, and sycamores. Also based on DETA.
Baby creams with IR3535 repellent content are also quite effective against insect bites.
However, in general, the popularity of consumers' gels and cream from insect bites are somewhat inferior to sprays due to the complexity of applying the drug to the body: if the spray is simply sprayed on clothing or leather, the gel needs to be carefully rubbed over the skin, while missing any unprotected site.
Repellent creams and gels for the duration of the protection against insect bites are quite comparable with sprays and aerosol formulations: the duration of protection is usually 2-4 hours. For this reason, for example, hunters and fishermen will need to handle hands and face with neck several times a day, which in case of creams and gels is not always convenient.
In addition, creams and gels from insect bites are contraindicated in dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema, furunculosis and some other skin diseases, and they are not recommended for pregnant and lactating women.
Among creams and gels, there are both "adult" drugs, and specialized products for protecting children. For example, "DETA Kid" - a cream in a tube containing DETA and with occasional use not causing side effects. Similar preparations are issued by companies Off, Mosquitall and some others.
On a note
Sometimes insects try to protect themselves with natural essential oils, applying them to clothing or to the skin. However, in fact, essential oils from insect bites usually do not help very effectively: although blood-sucking parasites do not really like strong sharp smells, nevertheless, with a large number of bloodsuckers around such protection will not help.
However, when there are not many mosquitoes and they are not too aggressive, essential oil, for example, lavender is quite capable of having a frightening effect and saving you from unpleasant bites.
Smoke grenades from insects
Insecticide-repellent smoke bombs frighten away mosquitoes, slimy, gnats and gnats from the territory in general, and when used in enclosed spaces, they destroy insects in it. For example, using a checker in nature, in the future you can safely rest, not listening to a continuous squeaking of mosquitoes around you, and if you light such a piece, for example, in a room, not only mosquitoes and flies will die, but also cockroaches, ants and other undesirable "guests ".
One of the drawbacks of insecticide-repellent smoke chips is the scaring off of insects only from a strictly defined territory. That is, they are good for fishing and gathering around the fire, but if you want, for example, to stroll into the forest nearby, then from insect bites you will have to use something else (spray, spray or cream). Therefore, smoke bombs are not suitable for protection against insect bites on excursions or active stages of hikes.
In addition, insecticide-repellent checkers do not provide reliable protection against bites of ticks and spiders - those arthropods that can not quickly leave the territory. After using the checkers, their activity on the smoke-treated area will be significantly reduced, but they will not provide guaranteed protection against bites.
Today, the following checkers from insects are quite popular and quite affordable:
- Quiet evening;
- The number;
On a note
Smoke grenades based on modern insecticides from the group of pyrethroids are most effective and at the same time safe for health (usually use permethrin and cypermethrin). But sulfur smoke smoke from insects is better not to use - these funds are more suitable for fighting mold, for example, in greenhouses and cellars.
To apply insecticide pills on the basis of hexachlorane (also called hexachlorocyclohexane) is also not recommended because of the high toxicity of this substance and its ability to accumulate in the body. Example - checker G-17.
The cost of insecticide-repellent smoke chips usually varies between 400-800 rubles apiece.
The order of application is as follows: the checker is lit, and as soon as smoke starts from it, it is simply carried around the perimeter of the area, which must be protected from insects, and then placed in the center of it. Sometimes a sword is tied to a rope and waved by it, so that the smoke is distributed in the air.
The protective effect of one smoke bomb extends approximately 500-800 square meters of area and lasts several hours in the absence of wind.
A small summary: to use to protect from insect bites, smoke bombs are most suitable for "stationary" stay in nature in good weather conditions. In the area with a large number of encephalitic mites full protection against their bites the checkers do not provide, so that additional protective equipment may be required.
Spirals from mosquitoes and midges
These funds, as well as insecticide-repellent smoke bombs, are designed to protect against insects a strictly defined area of the territory. At the same time, the smoldering spiral due to the slow release of the active substance as a whole is less effective than the draft, and allows to protect the space with a radius of only a few meters around itself. But the duration of the protective effect will be higher than in the case of the use of checkers and, in addition, the effect is not so sensitive to the presence of wind.
Spirals from mosquitoes and midges should be considered mainly as a means to protect against insect bites at the table on the veranda or in rooms with open windows.
Pretty popular are the following brands of spirals for repelling insects:
On a note
The active substances of high-performance insect spirals can be, for example, d-allletrin and transfluthrin.
Prices for spirals from mosquitoes are in the range of 100-250 rubles per package of 10 spirals.
It is useful to keep in mind that although for people such spirals are considered safe enough, nevertheless, in the case of regular and frequent inhalation of insecticide-repellent smoke, health is unlikely to add. And even more so, constantly to fumigate them with living quarters is not worth it.
Electrical exterminators of insects
Means of this group are well suited for protection from mosquitoes both indoors and outside - for example, directly near a private house (veranda, courtyard, terrace). Here the device is connected to the electrical network and attracts insects with the light of an ultraviolet lamp. Before the lamp there is a metal grid, to which a high voltage is applied - flying up to the grid, the insect is destroyed by an electric discharge and falls into a special tray, which must periodically be freed from accumulated "corpses".
On a note
Electrical destroyers of insects have also alternative names: a lamp from insects, a lantern from insects, an electric shock insect killer, an ultraviolet trap for mosquitoes,
An important point: the lamp emits a soft ultraviolet light and does not ozonize the air, so you can not be afraid of having a specific smell of ozone in the room. It is also useful to bear in mind that ultraviolet attracts not only mosquitoes, but also flies, night butterflies, moths and some other flying insects - all of them will die on the grid.
Pretty popular are the following brands of traps:
- Well - among them there are both small models for an apartment, and street and industrial destroyers of flying insects, used on farms and large warehouses;
- Mo El - mainly traps for use in living quarters;
- Hilton - the most budgetary traps (prices start from 300 rubles).
A brief summary: when protecting against insect bites in the dark, directly inside the room, and also, for example, near a private home, the facilities of this group show quite good efficiency and, importantly, absolutely do not harm the health of a person, because in their work they do not distinguish air insecticides and repellents. However, during the daytime and, especially, in conditions of departure to nature, such devices from the bites of the same mosquitoes will not be protected.
In general, ultrasonic insect repellers can be attributed to the least effective means, and to hope that they will reliably protect against the nature of mosquito bites, mosquitoes, various midges and, especially, ticks is not worth it. On the majority of insects, ultrasound of low power does not exert any significant influence at all, except that mosquitoes are an exception.
On a note
It is believed that ultrasound of a certain frequency is perceived by mosquitoes as a signal of danger.
Electronic ultrasonic mosquito stickers, produced mainly by the Chinese industry, protect against bites only with a small number of bloodsuckers, and even then not always. In the forest, if there is a large number of hungry mosquitoes, such a key chain refuses absolutely useless.
More powerful models of ultrasonic repellents protect against mosquito bites in enclosed spaces and operate from the outlet.
Special clothes for protection against insect bites
Instead of using repellent creams, aerosols or smoke grenades in the "mosquito" of the terrain, it is often much easier and more efficient to cover the body with special clothing, preventing bloodsuckers from picking up the skin.
Such a set of protective clothing is simple, cheap and helps protect against insect bites better than using chemicals. However, in a particularly hot weather, as well as in the presence of not very large number of bloodsuckers, it is easier to sprinkle with spray or cream.
On a note
People whose work is associated with a permanent stay in the area with an abundance of nest (geologists, forest workers, biologists) use special very light clothing - windbreaker pants and a jacket of light materials. The jacket usually has a hood with a mosquito net, so you do not have to have a mask of the beekeeper. Such a suit can be put on top of any clothes, or simply throws it on a naked body. If the work is connected with constant observations, and nothing should interfere with the eyes, the face is additionally rubbed with repellent gel.
Remedies for ticks: is there any specificity?
To protect against tick bites, the following are commonly used:
- Gels, aerosols and sprays applied to the skin and clothing;
- And also the clothes themselves, through which the mites can not get through.
Composition of effective remedies against ticks is usually combined - most often not only a repellent (for example, DETA repellent) but also contact insecticides (alpha-cypermethrin, permethrin) is used. That is, even just crawling on the processed clothes, the mite is already in contact with the poison, which within a few minutes causes parasitism and subsequent death.
Sufficiently effective remedies for ticks can be found, for example, among the following brands: Mosquitall, Gardex, Taiga, and others.
Clothing for protection against ticks should provide complete protection of the entire body. On the feet should be worn socks, they must be tucked in pants, in which, in turn, refueled jacket or jacket. Very often in the forest, mites fall on a person from branches of trees and shrubs (although some doubt it), and therefore on excursions it is important to be dressed in a hooded jacket. On the hands and on the belt of such a jacket there should be elastic bands, ensuring a tight fit of the tissue to the skin.
On a note
All this is necessary in areas with a high risk of infection with tick-borne encephalitis. In areas where encephalitis is not detected, such measures are not mandatory - even if the tick bites here, it will not cause such a bite.
It is also important to remember that even an infected tick transmits the pathogen only a few hours after the beginning of the bloodsucking. If during a walk or just after it, carefully examine the body (it is necessary that someone else does it) and remove the sucking ticks, the risk of infection will be minimal. Nevertheless, it is more reliable not to let the bites themselves.
If the mite already sucked, you either need to squeeze it with your nails as close as possible to the skin, or twist it with a thread, then carefully pull it out. It is advisable to twist it slightly in the skin beforehand - it does not hurt, but will prevent a possible tearing off of the head, which can remain in the wound and lead to an abscess. You can also burn a tick with a match or a cigarette, or cover it with vegetable oil - in the first case, it will try to disengage reflexively, in the second - because of a lack of oxygen.
If the sucking tick is removed in an area with high encephalitic danger from a person without an appropriate vaccination, then the bitten should appear to the doctor. Occurrence in nature in such a locality without prior vaccination is a gross violation of safety rules.
How to protect yourself from the bites of non-parasitic insects?
Special means of protection against bites of wasps, bees, hornets, flies and carnivores are not present. These insects bite rarely and only in the order of self-defense - if they are picked up, accidentally sit on them or in some way create a different threat. In this case, it does not matter whether a person is smeared with repellent gel.
Nevertheless, the probability of bites of non-parasitic insects can be reduced by processing the area with the same smoke bombs - wasps and bees will fly away from this place if there is no nest on it. But all the same, the main defense against such bites is correct behavior:
- In nature and in the garden you always need to check the place on which you plan to sit;
- Do not leave bottles of drinks open, and then drink directly from them. In the neck of bottles will often climb the wasps and hornets, which eventually can get into the person's mouth. It is in such situations that very dangerous bites occur (with the squeezing of the airways due to edema);
- In case of accidental detection of an aspen nest (or nest of hornets), it is necessary to leave it slowly and cautiously, without provoking insects to attack;
- When leaving for a picnic, it is desirable to keep all sweet, meat and fish products as long as possible closed;
- You can not lay down a naked body on the grass (so-called "earth wasps", and hornets can arrange their nest under the ground).
Clothing on the body to a certain extent protects against stings of stinging insects. In the summer, t-shirts filled with light pants are enough to reduce the risk of a wasp bite by 90%.
Rules for choosing a tool for different situations
As a result, to select means from insect bites follows approximately like this:
- For protection on the excursion or short hike, hunting or working in the country, you should use the means for applying to the skin or clothing;
- In an area with a high risk of encephalitis, in addition to using repellents, you need to be dressed as clandestinely as possible;
- On a fishing or picnic territory it is advisable to pre-treat with an insecticide-repellent smoke grenade;
- When eating on a veranda or in a room with open windows, you can use spirals from mosquitoes, and in the dark - a lamp-lamp insect killer;
- In long walks in the forest, most of the time you need to be dressed in closed clothing, periodically applying to it, as well as on the face and hands, repellent.
In addition, at any trips to nature or to the country, it is desirable to have with them ointments used after insect bites, and people with insect allergy - special autoinjectors with epinephrine (adrenaline) to prevent the development of anaphylactic shock.
Means for treatment of bites: what to do if you have already been bitten?
If we are talking, for example, about such insect parasites as mosquitoes or fleas, then it is either not necessary to fight the consequences of their bites, and they themselves will pass in a few days, or to speed up the process, you can:
- Use any medical device after insect bites - Fenistil gel or Menovazine. Children are well suited children's funds from Mosquitall and Gardex Family. When biting stinging insects, these funds are not always enough, you need to carefully monitor the condition of the injured person, and if necessary, see a doctor;
- You can also use folk remedies. It helps to remove the itching from mosquito bites and bedbugs cold soda solution, or skin treatment with lemon juice;
- There is an opinion that some oils also help well after insect bites - castor, aloe, cedar. However, in practice, oils do not alleviate itching, and some essential oils can, on the contrary, intensify it, irritating the damaged skin. For example, the well-known recipe for home-made pencil from insect bites, which includes 7 grams of wax, 2 drops of liquid vitamin E and 40 drops of any essential oils - peppermint, lavender, geranium, pine ... is rather questionable in terms of effectiveness ...
If there is a bite of a stinging insect, its place is usually lubricated with any anti-inflammatory (Hydrocortisone, Advantan) or anesthetic (for example, Menovazine) ointment. When choosing an ointment, it should be borne in mind that each drug has its own contraindications for use.
If a bee stings, then before applying any remedy, you must first remove the sting from the wound. If signs of an allergic reaction appear, you should immediately consult with your doctor about further actions (at least by phone). Sometimes it is necessary to take antihistamines (Suprastin, Erius, Dimedrol) and even urgent hospitalization.
On a note
At the site of the tick bite, there is usually a large solid cone. If you do not comb it and do not touch it, it will not bother the victim, and after a few days it will resolve itself. In the case of the occurrence of pruritus, you can use the same Advantan or hydrocortisone ointment (contraindications are possible). If a few days around the place of bite appeared well-delineated red circles, then you need to go to the hospital - this is the first sign of Lyme borreliosis.
How to avoid biting the leeches and what to do if you are already bitten?
The main difficulty of protecting against leeches is that they live in water, and here all protective agents are quickly washed off the skin of a person. From leeches in wet grass, they reliably protect means with 20% DETA content, but more often these parasites attack precisely in standing water bodies on bathers and fishermen. Absolutely reliable protection from them here - rubber boots or wetsuit (including hydro-noses).
Bites of leeches are unpleasant, in the first place, heavy bleeding. To prevent it, it is advisable to sprinkle the wound with a vasoconstrictor for the nose - Naphthyzine or Halazolin (contraindications are possible), and then attach a tight cotton wool compress and tightly wrap it with a bandage.
Well, be careful when relaxing in the forest or country, use the right means from insects and enjoy nature, without fear of parasites!
If you have a personal experience of using these or other means to protect against insect bites - do not forget to leave your feedback at the bottom of this page (in the comments field).