Did the bite bite? First of all sit down, exhale and calm down. In our country, deadly insects are very few, and it's unlikely that you have smiled luck to meet with him. Next, we will consider the rules of first aid for insect bites, which can significantly alleviate the severity of possible consequences for the human body. Even in cases where bites are associated with the entry of strong allergens into the wound (for example, hornet bites) - properly provided first aid will provide protection against generalized allergic reaction and dangerous edema.
First of all, it is important to understand that the nature of first aid for insect bites depends to a certain extent on the type of insect that has bitten or stung. Therefore, even if the pain from a bite is very strong, the best thing you can do in the first seconds after a bite is not to run, waving your arms, but to try to consider the offender. In the future it can save time for treatment and help to take adequate measures to relieve itching and possible swelling.
By nature, insect bites can be divided into two types:
- Bites for the purpose of defense. They are usually very painful, cause severe swelling, sometimes powerful allergic reactions up to a deadly anaphylactic shock. So bite or sting wasps, hornets, bees, water bugs , some riders, some kinds of ants.
- Insect bites of parasites. Their goal is to be saturated with blood so that the victim does not immediately notice, therefore all the consequences of bites usually appear after a certain time. This group includes bites of bed bugs, fleas, mosquitoes, lice, and flies. Their consequences are usually limited to small redness and swelling, but with massive bites, as well as people prone to allergies can lead to very serious problems.
On a note
In most cases, under the bites of insects, we are accustomed to understand, for example, the bites of spiders and millipedes. However, neither those nor others from the point of view of a biologist (more precisely - an entomologist) are typical insects (for example, spiders do not refer to insects, but to the Spider-like). However, the measures of first aid with their bites are quite similar to those at bites of true insects, therefore we will simplistically talk about all such exceptions as insects.
And now on the steps: what you need to do after the bites of insects ...
The first steps: neutralize the poison and remove part of it from the wound
The first thing to do if bitten by an insect is to try to neutralize the poison and remove at least part of it from the wound. In the case of different insects, this is done in different ways.
- When you bite the bee, you need to remove the sting from the wound as soon as possible (since the muscles of the sac with the poison continue to shrink for a long time, gradually introducing more and more poison into the wound). Then you need to try to suck the poison, spitting it, and rinse the wound with soapy water. If the stinger is too deeply embedded in the skin, it can be pulled out with alcohol washed or heated with a needle.
- If you bite a wasp or hornet, you should not look for a sting - these insects, unlike bees, do not leave their sting in the skin (and can, by the way, sting repeatedly). You can try to suck off some of the poison from the wound, then put a piece of apple on it or rinse it with vinegar. Sugar or urine works well too, they draw on themselves poison.
- The first help with the bite of poisonous spiders can be to cauterize the wound with just an extinct match. Their poison quickly decomposes under the influence of high temperature. This method will only help for the first few minutes after the bite.
In any case, to suck the poison out of the wound is a universal action. Even if you bite an unknown insect, you can do it safely - in the oral cavity the poison itself does not work (if there are no wounds, scratches or sores). It is important only to spit the saliva and at the end of the procedure thoroughly rinse your mouth with water.
With the bites of insect parasites, the wound is penetrated not by poison, but by saliva with a special enzyme that prevents blood clotting. In addition, for example, fleas or ticks can transmit pathogens of very dangerous diseases while bugs and mosquitoes inject a secret into the wound that causes severe itching after a while.
If the bite is smeared with alcohol as early as possible, the consequences are usually less pronounced.
If bitten by an insect, in no case should you try to squeeze the poison out of the wound with your fingers: this will only lead to increased blood flow and faster spreading of the poison under the skin.
Do not let the poison spread to the tissues
Emergency assistance with the bites of many insects suggests the imposition of a cold compress on the wound. This tool helps to get rid of severe consequences even with stings of stinging insects, such as hornets, wasps, bees. As a coolant, you can use water, ice, metal or stone - anything that has a temperature below body temperature.
The main goal of this step is to prevent the development of an extensive edema that can sometimes pose a serious danger to human life (for example, when biting the hornet in the face, neck, throat).
With the bites of parasitic insects, compress is not necessary, but if a person is prone to severe allergies - this measure can also give its positive effect.
How to avoid intoxication and weaken the manifestation of bite symptoms?
After completing the above first aid measures after an insect bite, you can then proceed to stop the symptoms of poisoning and disinfect the bite:
- Disinfect the wound: smear it with alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, green or a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
- Prevent the development of an allergic reaction: the wound and the area 3-4 cm from it thickly grease with Sovenent or gel Fenistil. In the absence of these preparations, you can treat the wound with the juice of a leaf of a plantain or dandelion, apply a tomato or a cut parsley root, and drip the juice of garlic.
- To soothe the pain, you can lubricate the wound, for example, balm Insektline, Gardex or Mosquito.
In the case of stings of stinging insects, it is desirable to drink a lot and often, which will help to remove the common symptoms of intoxication.
First aid for insect bites often implies the use of special antihistamines (from allergies). They should be taken only when there are clear signs of extensive edema or a rash appears on the body, lymph nodes increase, palpitations increase, and shortness of breath appears. In this case, when biting an insect, it is necessary:
- To drink a tablet of Suprastinum or Loratadina.
- Or you can take a tablet of Prednisolone.
- Finally, for lack of all of the above in the home medicine chest, you can drink a pill of Dimedrol.
If there are no acute symptoms of an allergic reaction after a bite of an unknown insect, these preparations should not be drunk.
If a child is bitten by an insect, you should do everything the same, but especially closely monitor its condition. If a child cries, screams and complains of pain - this is normal. Bad, if he suddenly calms down, stops talking, tries to lie down or sit down, starts to choke. In this case, you need to urgently take the child to the hospital or call an ambulance.
Mass bites: what to do?
If blood-sucking insects have abundantly bitten, the wounds should be washed with soap, then greased with alcohol. At bites in children it is also necessary to monitor the general well-being of the child and the temperature of his body (it may be necessary to urgently consult a doctor).
It is more dangerous if mass bees, bees, wasps and especially hornets, for example, when they disturb their nest.
Their bites are very allergenic, and even 4-5 bites can be enough for the development of pain or anaphylactic shock. Each bite in this case should be treated in the same way as a single bite, but especially closely monitor the overall condition of the victim.
On especially difficult cases it is necessary to talk separately.
First aid in especially difficult cases
First aid with bites especially poisonous insects does not differ from that when attacking ordinary hornets or poisonous spiders.
In our country, the bites of giant hornets living in Primorye, earthen wasps, caracourt spiders, scorpions in the south of the country, and giant scolopenders are especially dangerous. Such dangerous insect bites may require rapid delivery of a bite to the intensive care unit. In the case of laryngeal edema, it may be necessary to make a conicotomy (a cut of the throat in the region of the cricoid cartilage) and insert a hollow tube into the hole to allow the person to breathe. But it's better if it does not come to this.
In the tropics are dangerous bites of many spiders, wasps, millipedes. One of the most dangerous insects in South America is the ant-bullet - the pain from its bite is times stronger than the pain from the bite of our hornet. Before traveling in the tropics, you should get acquainted with the main biting insects and be ready to provide first aid in attacking them. But the main efforts for severe bites should be aimed at the prompt delivery of the victim to the hospital.
It is interesting
Those who are fortunate enough to be bitten by different kinds of spiders, claim that the bite of karakurt is not felt at all. Moreover, it usually happens in a dream, when a person turns and pushes a spider. But the consequences of this bite are very serious. The bite of the tarantula, on the contrary, is extremely painful, but in terms of the severity of the consequences it is comparable to the sting of a bee.
In conclusion, we will give you a list of the means that you need to have with you when entering the nature, in order to ensure a quick response to any insect bites.
Be ready for insect bites:
- If you have a severe allergy to insect bites, always have with yourself antihistamines and an allergist doctor's report (for doctors who come to give you an ambulance).
- Always take your Fenistil gel or analogues with you on a trip.
- When traveling to places infested with parasites, vaccinate.
- Do not make sharp movements near insects, do not lay down on the ground, without checking the absence of insects on it.
- Have matches with you, as well as anything containing alcohol.
And remember: when bitten by unknown insects, a person suffers more from panic than from the bite itself. So be calm and reasonable, but help yourself or your loved ones quickly and decisively.