In the fight against bugs, many insecticides managed to "break their teeth." The reasons for this are clear: not only are bedbugs themselves sufficiently resistant to various chemical compounds effective against other insects, in addition, the bed bug adapts quickly enough even to those poisons, from which even literally yesterday, it would seem, perished. It is not surprising that in the market drugs from bedbugs constantly replace each other. And today the most used and one of the most effective insecticides is considered to be a remedy for bedbugs. Carbophos is a preparation based on the ether of a phosphorus- and sulfur-containing organic compound - malathion.
This drug is one of the few that act on insects quickly and effectively, and the destruction of bedbugs by Carbophos usually does not take a lot of time.
How does Carbophos (Malathion) act on bedbugs?
The principle of the action of Carbophos is that it disrupts the standard transmission of the nerve impulse from the cell to the cell, preventing the opening of the neural circuit. Thus, the chain remains always closed, resulting in paralysis and death of the insect. In other words, Carbophos has a neuro-paralytic mechanism of action.
Under the influence of various intracellular oxidants, malathion (this is another name for Carbofos) can be converted into its analogue - malaoxon, whose activity is several times higher than the level of the precursor. It is this reaction of the transformation of one substance into another that most often takes place in the body of the insect, and to a lesser degree is characteristic of plants and warm-blooded animals.
The reverse process or the disintegration of the toxic "relative" in insects is much slower than in the body warm-blooded. That is why malathion is so strongly and quite selectively poisonous for insects, among which there are many pests.
However, in some cases, carbophos may be ineffective from bedbugs. The repeated use of Carbophos causes the appearance of insects resistant to its action. Bed bugs make it possible to destroy malathion, turning it into less toxic compounds.
The basis of these reactions are mutations in the genetic apparatus of insects, leading to the emergence of new resistant enzymes in decomposition reactions or a significant increase in the activity of already existing proteins in the body.
This is an example of evolution in its modern form in the struggle of insects with man. We can say that constantly using Carbophos, the inhabitants of large cities themselves create mutants, for which this poison is not terrible.
A bit of history: how Karbofos was created
The synthesis of organophosphorus compounds, to which Carbophos belongs, was first realized in the 19th century. However, the intensive development of studies of such substances, both as components of plastics and rubber, various additives for lubricating oils, and insecticides for agriculture, were the work of A.E. Arbuzov, begun already in the 30s of the XX century. The first created organophosphorus compounds proved to be extremely poisonous and, accordingly, dangerous for warm-blooded animals, including humans. This stimulated the search for new compounds with selectively targeted toxicity, as well as finding the means that could become antidotes for the studied class.
Of the many thousands of synthesized organophosphorus compounds, most, including Carbophos, were obtained in the Soviet Union in specially created laboratories. In parallel, the study of such drugs occurred in several countries: England, Germany and the United States (American Cyanamid Company). It was within the walls of this company in the middle of the last century that the drug T.M.4049 appeared, the trade name of which was Malaton first, and then Malathion.
Physical and chemical properties of Carbophos
Pure Carbophos (Malathion) is an oily liquid that does not have a color, but with a characteristic very sharp and unpleasant odor. The preparation, ready for use, is a liquid of dark brown color.
Properties of Carbophos:
- very poorly soluble in water
- well mixed with most organic solvents
- relatively resistant to temperatures and sunlight
- quickly breaks down with the addition of alkali. Therefore, alkaline solutions, in particular soap, can be used to neutralize household items after treatment with Carbophos.
- Carbofos is a substance with a relatively high volatility, which increases significantly with increasing temperature. This must be taken into account when treating the premises with Carbophos.
How dangerous is Carbophos for humans and pets?
For warm-blooded creatures, including humans, Carbophos can be very poisonous, while the level of toxicity depends on the purity of the drug.
In animal cells, this compound is metabolized fairly quickly with the formation of less dangerous degradation products, which are rapidly eliminated from the body.
Carbofos has cumulative properties, and with prolonged exposure it can accumulate in the body, but it occurs for a very long period of time. Symptoms that develop during the initial stages of Carbophos intoxication are mainly due to excessive activation of nerve impulse transmission, as well as direct toxic effects on cells of different organs. As a result of such activity, the functioning of various organs is developing.
Areas of use
Carbofos (Malathion) is an insecticide, the relevance of which continues to be high to this day. This substance can be used by man at home, in agriculture to control many insect parasites, including bugs. Carbofos against bedbugs is effective at all stages of development, from eggs to adult individuals.
However, as with any toxic substance, the treatment of premises with Carbophos requires considerable preliminary preparation.
Before you can pickle bugs Carbophos, you need to clean the room, during which all food, dishes and cutlery, personal items and personal hygiene should be packed in plastic bags. It is advisable to make it airtight, and put it in a closed place (for example, in a refrigerator). And furniture, both wooden and soft, on the contrary, if possible, make it more accessible to the impact of Carbophos.
All pets must be evacuated from the apartment for the duration of treatment with the drug. And if the apartment has an aquarium, then it is necessary to turn off the air filtration and cover it with something from above.
Having bought Carbophos from bedbugs and intending to use it, it is necessary first of all to read the instruction. The person who will conduct the treatment of the apartment from bedbugs using Carbophos should perform all operations in rubber gloves, cotton-gauze dressing and the most closed clothing.
If possible, it would be good to use safety goggles. During the appropriate manipulation, due to non-observance of precautionary measures, poisoning may occur or an allergy may occur.
According to the instruction, the concentrate of Carbophos emulsion from bugs is diluted in a certain volume of water, after which it is mixed and sprayed over the surface of the objects.
Particular attention should be paid to such "secluded" corners of the apartment as the back walls of wooden furniture, joints in upholstered furniture and between wallpaper, cracks in the walls and floor, skirting boards, the space inside the bookshelves. You can apply the product with the help of ordinary household sprinklers or bottles with a spray gun from household chemicals.
Carbofos during the treatment of the room from bugs can not be applied to bedding, clothing, and also human skin.
After carrying out the treatment, you should thoroughly wash your hands with soap, and from "working" clothing or just get rid of, or wash it with the addition of baking soda.
After the appropriate exposure time (usually 4-5 hours), the apartment should be well ventilated, if possible - until the smell of Carbophos disappears completely. Also those parts of the interior and furniture, to which the inhabitants of the apartment most often touch with their hands, must be washed with a soap solution with the addition of baking soda.
On the third day after the first treatment, a second treatment is carried out from bedbugs, the implementation of which takes place according to the above scheme. General cleaning can be made only 1.5-2 months after the use of Carbophos.
Substitutes of Carbophos
Today, Carbophos is gradually being replaced by safer insecticides from the Pyrethroid groups (Cypermethrin, Permethrin), Neonicotinoids (Imidacloprid, Tiamethoxam), and also the same class of compounds as Carbophos itself, but of a newer generation (for example, Diazinon).
Synthetic pyrethroids are analogues of natural substances contained in chamomile flowers. In the market of agricultural insecticides, they appeared in the last century, but had several serious shortcomings - high cost and relatively rapid loss of activity in the external environment. However, later, technologists were able to rid the preparations of the main shortcomings, and today this class of compounds is widely used both in domestic conditions and in agriculture to control many insects, including bed bugs.
The simultaneous use of Carbophos and Permethrin from the group of Pyrethroids has proved to be very useful, since these drugs proved to be synergists that enhance the action of each other and allow to overcome the resistance of insects to each of them separately.
Insecticides of the class of neonicotinoids are synthetic analogues of the substances contained in the leaves of tobacco and makhorka. These compounds are characterized by accumulation mainly in the stems and leaves of agricultural plants, which is very important when applied to fruit and vegetable crops, consumed by humans mainly in fresh form.
Diazinon is a contact and intestinal insecticide developed by the Swiss chemical company Ciba-Geigy. For a long time it was used in residential buildings against bedbugs, cockroaches, ants, moths and fleas, but it has been used practically for almost 10 years only in agriculture.
Today, drugs based on Carbophos remain the main means of controlling bed bugs, accounting for 75-80% of the market for household insecticides and pleasing the user with relatively low prices. Therefore, if necessary, you can safely apply them.