The hornet sting is the main and practically the only means of self-defense for this insect. For hunters and hunters, hornet uses it rarely. However, the presence of a very strong poison, as well as the fact that the sting is perfectly adapted to penetration into the covers of other animals, indicate that the hornets have to constantly protect themselves or their nest .
In the photo - horn sting at a sufficiently large increase:
Hornet - insect as a whole is not aggressive, its sting is used only if it is impossible to hide from an attack or while protecting the nest. This feature suggests that if the hornet stings, it is the sting that is to blame - for no serious reason, the insect will not attack.
At the same time, despite its peace-loving nature, the stinging hornet is very dangerous: even in people resistant to poisons, stinging hornet causes extensive swelling and acute pain. People whose immunity is not able to resist insect bites, risk getting the strongest allergic reaction.
Most of the affected horny stings experienced an increase in body temperature, chills, dizziness, headaches, and in especially severe cases - anaphylactic shock and Quincke's edema, which unfortunately can end in a fatal outcome for a stung person.
On a note
As a result of stinging hornets around the world, people are regularly killed. Most victims are in South-East Asia: only in Japan, more than 40 people die each year from the bites of local hornets. A similar situation is observed in some provinces of China. If a person is more susceptible to insect venom, a fatal outcome may occur from a meeting with an ordinary European hornet, but such cases are extremely rare.
It should be noted that the symptoms of intoxication with poisons of hornets and bees are similar, but the process of stinging and stinging itself differs from the analogues of bees.
If a bee can sting only once in a lifetime, then the hornet sting is a reusable weapon. Some species of these insects at risk sting at the rate of several injections per second without harm to their health. The reason for this is the special structure of the sting of the hornet.
Photo and anatomy of a stingray sting
Sturgeon sting is a modified ovipositor connected to a special poisonous gland. Unlike riders - related insects - hornets in a quiet state are able to hide a sting in the abdomen and push it only to sting the offender. Riders are not able to pull their sting into the body cavity.
In the photo below - the sting of an ordinary hornet:
The length of the sting for different species of hornets varies: the European reaches 3-6 mm, and, for example, the giant Asian hornet - up to 8 mm. The sting of representatives of the latter species is considered to be one of the largest in the whole detachment.
The sting of a huge hornet is seen in the photo:
What other features does the hornet's weapon have? This insect has a smooth, no jaggies and spinules sting. Thanks to this structure, after a bite, the hornet can easily remove the sting from the wound and can sting it again. This his weapon favorably differs from the analogue of the honey bee: its sting has a sawtooth shape and in the thick skin of a person stuck.
After a sting, the bee dies in a few minutes, because of the peculiarities of the structure, its sting is severed from part of the internal organs.
On a note
For a bee, only an attack on mammals with thick skin is fatal. At the same time, from the covers of the body of insects, the bee quietly removes the sting and can use it in the future.
It is the ability of the hornet to sting several times led to the erroneous opinion that the hornet has somewhat stung. But this is not so: if the hornet for some reason loses its sting, it will die, like a bee.
Another feature of the anatomy of the hornet is that its sting is connected to a special gland that produces poison as needed.
The hornet has a toxin in stock, the amount of which is enough for 4-5 bites. Thanks to the proper functioning of the gland, a few hours after stinging, the spent poison is fully replenished.
Sting in work: how does the "bite" of a hornet occur
The secretion of poison from the sting occurs as a result of the contraction of the muscle surrounding the poisonous gland. The hornet is able to fully control this process.
The sting is pulled out from the end of the abdomen as soon as the insect decides to sting the offender or the victim. However, usually the hornet still prefers to kill prey with its jaws, albeit for a fairly long time, rather than using a sting. This suggests that the insect very economically treats its poison and spends it only in exceptional cases.
Here is another photo of the sting of a hornet (with a drop of poison at the end):
On a note
For one bite, the hornet enters into the victim's body 0.5 mg of poisonous substance. The dry mass of the poison is 0.19 mg. This is enough to cause a general allergic reaction.
After introducing a weapon into the victim's body, the hornet emits a drop of poison, and then removes the sting. Thanks to the presence of acetylcholine, the toxin instantly affects the nerve endings at the site of the bite and causes pain even before the stinger is removed from under the skin.
The video clearly shows how stings the hornet:
If the danger is not past, the hornet stings again. Such a tactic is more effective than simply injecting a poison water and the same place without removing the sting. This is due to the fact that exposure to a toxin in this method of lesion extends to all new nerve endings, which only increases pain.
On a note
A stinging hornet, like a stinging bee, is well recognized in certain circles by symbols. Tattoo with a stinging hornet means that the person is calm, hardworking and clean, but if necessary, can be tough and able to protect himself and his interests. This tattoo is very common among Japanese mafia yakuza.
A little bit about the sting functions
The hornet is an active predator, and therefore its sting is more often used for the extraction of food, and not for protection. However, in the overwhelming majority of cases, the hornet must be used only when its victim is too large or well protected by a dense shell. To kill the smaller prey, he completely manages the jaws.
For clarity, you can give an example: when attacking spiders or bumblebees, capable of giving a worthy rebuff, the hornet is forced to use sting. If hornets attack a beehive, each of the predators can destroy up to a thousand bees without a single sting, killing only with jaws.
It is worth noting that most hornets before protection with the help of a sting it does not reach all life - on these insects, few attack. But to use the poison for food hornet has almost daily.
On a note
Each hornet catches up to 15-20 insects per day. Of these, at least 1-2 are too large to be managed with only the jaws.
First aid rules for biting hornets
If the hornet still stings, the first thing to do immediately is to treat the wound. There's no point in wasting time and looking for the sting itself-an insect must have taken it with him.
Especially do not put pressure on a stung place, trying to squeeze out the poison. This action will lead to increased blood circulation and, as a result, accelerate the spread of the toxin under the skin.
The first actions when biting a hornet should be as follows:
- Treat the bite site with acetic or citric acid, then with alcohol or hydrogen peroxide.
- Apply a few minutes of wet sugar, and on top - a cold compress.
- Treat the skin around the bite with Fenistil gels or Sovenentol.
- Drink as much water or sweet tea as possible.
At the first symptoms of allergic reaction - dizziness, nausea, fever - the victim should be taken to the hospital as soon as possible. Use of symptomatic treatment in this case is not necessary, because it is unknown how the body can react to additional substances. The only drugs that you can drink when you start allergies are Suprastin and Dimedrol. They will help reduce the strength of the body's reaction.
The main thing when stitching a hornet is not to ignore the unambiguous symptoms of toxin poisoning. An allergic reaction to the poison of an insect can develop even in a physically strong and healthy person, and with every new bite it will be stronger. Be attentive to yourself and your health, insure that the consequences are not too serious!