It can be said that the bite of a hornet is one of the most dangerous among all domestic stinging insects. Yes, and in exotic tropical countries the picture is not much different: local hornets and here belongs the palm tree of the championship for bites with fatal outcome.
Immediately after the hornet stung, the victim experiences, above all, severe pain, then swift edema develops very quickly. In addition, many people have a bite of a hornet (if a qualified first aid does not arrive in time) may result in the development of a strong allergic reaction, sometimes resulting in anaphylactic shock and even death.
On a note
In Japan, about 40 people die of hornets every year. This is more than the number killed in the attack of any other species of wild animals. A similar situation is observed in some provinces of China. As doctors say, the main causes of death due to a bite of a hornet are choking from laryngeal edema and kidney failure.
Indeed, in some rare cases, the bite of a hornet can be fatal to a person. And it is important not only for large tropical species of these insects, but also for ordinary European. That is why, if a hornet is bitten by someone in a summer cottage or during a picnic in nature, first aid should be provided without fail, and as soon as possible.
First steps: do not let the poison spread under the skin
So, let's look at what the first aid should consist in and how to properly provide it to the victim.
The first thing after a bite of a hornet you can try to suck at least some of the poison from the wound, but it should not take more than 1 minute, because the skin at the bite place is very quickly tightened, but there is simply no extra time for the victim's help. Then, as soon as possible, apply a cold compress to the affected area, which will reduce the rate of spread of the poison, as well as the rate of edema of the tissues.
Providing first aid for bite of a hornet, one important factor should be taken into account: this insect, unlike the bee, never leaves its sting in the skin. Therefore, it is not worth it to look for, and, moreover, try to squeeze it out of the wound.
In addition, it is not recommended to comb the place of the bite, rub it or press on the wound - all these actions will lead only to stimulation of blood circulation and, as a result, faster spread of the poison to the tissues.
In the ideal case, first aid after a bite of the hornet should be in the following order:
- from the wound the maximum of toxic content is sucked off;
- the bite site is treated with alcohol, a solution of potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide for disinfection;
- then moistened sugar is applied to the affected area, which is covered with a cold towel or an ice pack on top.
Sugar is needed in order to additionally pull off a part of the poison, located near the surface of the skin at the site of the bite. After 5-10 minutes, when it fulfills its function, it can be replaced with a tampon soaked in vinegar or citric acid.
Since the hornet's poison has an alkaline medium, the acid that enters the wound partially neutralizes it. If you do not have these tools at hand, you can attach a piece of apple, a bow or garlic clove, or a plantain leaf to the site of the bite of the hornet.
"As a child, my father was so used to bees in the apiary that when I was bitten by a hornet , I did not even bother. Well, swollen, well, okay. Then I felt that my eyes were closing, I started calling my wife, and she was in the house, I did not hear right away. My eyelids swelled so that I could not see anything, I started feeling sick. So it became so scary that I crawled out of the garden on my tufts. He did not crawl to the house, he lost consciousness. Into himself came already in the hospital, under a dropper. Doctors said that I have anaphylaxis, and very fast. Maybe, from the stings of bees, she evolved. A week later, I was discharged from the hospital, given a passport of an allergic person, and said that if someone else ever stung me, I should immediately call an ambulance, and then they can not take me to the hospital. "
Providing first aid to a person who has suffered from a bite of a hornet, it is necessary, if possible, to give him a drink of some antihistamine drug: Diphenhydramine, Suprastin, or any similar. These medications are necessary to suppress an allergic reaction or to weaken its manifestation in the future.
All subsequent care and treatment after a bite of a hornet is determined by the degree of severity of allergy symptoms.
Combating the first symptoms
If, in addition to edema, itching and local pain, no other disorders are observed in the affected person, then treatment with a bite of a hornet can be minimal - these symptoms will go by themselves even without help in a few days. In most cases it is enough to use, for example, ointment from insect bites .
However, there are a number of signs of the development of a generalized allergic reaction, which require prompt medical intervention:
- increased heart rate;
- labored breathing;
- extensive swelling;
- severe nausea;
- Preservation of the tumor at the site of the bite for more than three days.
At occurrence of even one of these signs it is necessary to take corresponding measures urgently, after all, the bite of a hornet is fatal precisely because of an allergic reaction to it. In this case, you need to call an ambulance or take the victim yourself to the hospital yourself.
If the delivery of a person to a medical institution takes a long time, the affected person from the bite of a hornet must be given glucocorticoid or antihistamines, which will have local anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. In addition to these Suprastin and Diphenhydramine, this may be the following drugs:
These drugs block the further development of an allergic reaction and, therefore, do not allow the most severe symptoms to manifest themselves.
Nevertheless, it must be remembered that all such drugs can cause serious side effects, so they should be used only in case of acute need, just as an emergency first aid.
If the symptoms of an allergic reaction do not increase ...
If the horned bitch is "lucky", and he has only a pain syndrome of all the possible symptoms, special balms and ointments exist to help him. Here are some examples of them:
- Fenistil gel;
- Insectline Balm;
- Gardex Family;
- Gel-balm Mosquitol;
- Balsam Family Picnic.
Another symptom that can be dealt with independently, without qualified care, is a rise in body temperature - but not strictly above 38 ° C. If the temperature does not rise, you do not need to knock it down.
The victim may also feel nauseous. To alleviate this condition, one should not take food for a while, but a generous drink will definitely help. In this situation, you need to use as much liquid as possible, preferably a warm tea.
What to do if you have severe allergies?
If the development of the edema continues, bruises appear on the site of the bite or on other parts of the body, and the victim feels worse, it is necessary to deliver him to the hospital as soon as possible. It should be borne in mind that such states, which at first do not look very disturbing, are potentially fraught with death.
Transportation of a person with severe allergic edema can only be in a supine position. The head should be slightly lowered relative to the body: it can not be lifted because of the risk of excessive blood flow (with subsequent loss of consciousness).
If you go far to the hospital, and emergency care is needed, as they say, here and now, you can call the ambulance and, describing the situation and the symptoms, ask the doctors to instruct you on the phone.
In severe cases, a person injured by a bite to prevent edema of the bronchi and larynx is usually injected with 0.2 ml of a 0.1% solution of epinephrine. Euphyllin can also be used to increase the airway patency.
With pronounced urticaria and Quinck's edema, up to 0.5 ml of a 0.1% solution of epinephrine can be additionally injected into the site of the bite, and 0.3 ml of a 0.15% solution of the same drug to the opposite part of the body. With the development of anaphylactic shock, this procedure is repeated.
In the most critical cases, when the victim of the bite of the hornet is not yet in the hospital, but breathing becomes practically impossible due to edema, the ligament between the cricoid and thyroid cartilages on the larynx is cut or pierced with a thick needle, and a hollow tube is inserted into the formed hole, allowing the victim to breathe . However terrible it may be, such actions in an emergency situation are vital - without them, the bite of a hornet can become truly fatal.
What exactly you can not do
To provide quality first aid, it is worth remembering some important limitations.
First, when biting a hornet, it is strictly forbidden to drink alcohol: this will only cause a further increase in edema.
Secondly, it is impossible to use as an antihistamine means Diprazin - this drug causes its own immune response of the body.
And most importantly - in no case can you wave your hand at all the symptoms and admonish that this is just a wasp. It is these lovers who rely on "maybe" to get (and sometimes not) from the other world reanimatologists.
Therefore, if the hornete bites you or someone close to you, be extremely attentive to all the consequences and just in case, immediately take care of the presence of a number of phone, in case of need to call the ambulance.