Many beekeepers know perfectly well what to do if the hornet has suddenly bitten. And just some wise people of life experience are always ready to give useful and correct advice for such a situation.
However, the overwhelming majority of people not only do not know what to do with the bite of a hornet, but do not even represent what it can be dangerous at all. As a result, if a person is bitten, this is not given much importance, sometimes the "grandmother's" recipes are used, the sense of which in serious cases is not more than, for example, from meditation. Sometimes such unpreparedness and inactivity end very badly ...
So, suppose a man was bitten by a hornet. What to do? The first is, of course, to calm down. To make important decisions about early help you need a "cold" head.
The severe pain in the place of the bite - and it necessarily will appear - does not at all mean indispensable destructive consequences for the organism. The point here is that the very poison of the hornet contains components that have a very strong effect on the nerve endings and therefore lead to a very pronounced pain syndrome - up to shock.
In the average statistical situation, it is difficult to predict in advance what will happen if the hornete bites: in some people everything is limited only by pain and swelling, while in others it can reach a rapid choking and loss of consciousness (a fatal outcome is possible). Often the severity of the reaction to bite is aggravated if a person has ever been bitten by hornets, bees or wasps.
Therefore, as soon as the hornet has bitten , it is necessary to immediately give the person first aid (or to render it to yourself, if this happened to you). Inaction in such a situation is unacceptable.
How dangerous are the bites of hornets
The hornet sting is at the same time a tool for hunting and active protection. Unlike a bee, a hornet can sting a person many times. With each bite, this insect injects a certain amount of poison into the wound.
It is interesting
In the poisonous gland hornet contains about 5-6 "portions" of poison. Often, hornets during an attack sting repeatedly in the same place, which greatly aggravates the consequences of such a "meeting" for a person. Nevertheless, even a single bite of a hornet can be very dangerous.
What is so dangerous bite hornet? Here are just a few reasons for this:
- the poison of the hornet causes a strong enough pain syndrome;
- the components of the poison destroy the walls of the cells of the affected tissues, which leads to hemorrhages and inflammation at the site of the bite;
- in most cases, the bite causes an allergic reaction, the severity of which depends on the individual sensitivity of the stung person.
Pain and swelling at the site of the bite are observed to some extent in all affected. If the hornet has bitten a human-sensitive insect, then in addition to these symptoms, headaches, palpitations and signs of general intoxication will appear.
The most dangerous is the hornet bite for allergy sufferers. A large amount of histamine in the horns' poison and its additional isolation from the collapsing mast cells of the affected person's tissues can lead to the development of anaphylactic shock and death even after one bite. That is why in some tropical countries, several dozen people a year regularly die from biting hornets.
On a note.
An important feature of the reaction of the body to the bite of the hornet is a constant increase in sensitivity to the components of the poison - from the bite to the bite. For example, if after the first bite a person can only have swelling, then each subsequent attack of hornets (for example, in a month or a year) will lead to increasingly severe consequences. It is this feature that underlies the fact that in the people of the hornet has a second name - the nine. It is believed that after the ninth bite of an insect, a person must perish. Scientists in this matter, of course, are not so categorical, but there are scientific prerequisites for such statements.
First aid with a bite of a hornet
Now let's see what to do first of all with the bite of a hornet. Before that, we should note that one should not look for a stinger in the wound and, moreover, try to dig it out from under the skin with a needle: the hornet, unlike the bee, always carries its weapon with it, leaving only the poison in the body of the victim.
The first actions when biting a hornet:
- Try to suck as much as possible of the poison from the wound. However, you should not persevere in this matter more than 1 minute after the bite, as further attempts will be already ineffective;
- Then it is necessary to treat the affected area with lemon or 9% acetic acid - the horn of the hornet is partially neutralized (incidentally, part of the components of the poison is neutralized and alkaline solutions, for example, soda or soap);
- Then it is necessary to disinfect the wound with alcohol or 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide;
- At the next stage it is useful to impose a cold (preferably ice) compress, under which is laid wet sugar - the cold does not give the poison quickly spread through the tissues, reduces the severity of the edema, and sugar helps draw additional part of the toxin from the wound.
But what you should not do after a bite of a hornet is to take the alcohol inside. In this case, alcohol in the human body will only increase the edema and exacerbate the toxic effect of the poison on the body as a whole. This is especially dangerous if the hornet bites into the head or neck.
If signs of a growing allergic reaction are not observed, and the ice compress has already done its job, then the next step is to reduce pain at the site of the bite. To do this, the wound is smeared with, for example, Fenistil gel or Sovenenthal. You can also use Insectline, Gardex Family or Picnic Family.
To folk remedies when bitten by a hornet are: a solution of soda, juice of a dandelion or plantain, a slice of onion, garlic or an apple. It is assumed that, when attached to the wound, these drugs will reduce pain and swelling. Although in practice the effect is weak in most cases.
On a note
The aforementioned folk recipes are also relevant for the treatment of pets-for example, if a hornet has bitten a cat or a dog. It is only necessary to consider that it is necessary to process the skin directly under the coat. However, if the animal becomes worse - you need to immediately show it to the vet.
If swelling and pain after the bite of the hornet does not increase and no additional anxiety symptoms appear, then no special further treatment is required. Within a few days, the swelling of the tissues will decrease, and the pain will disappear.
If the local reaction is accompanied by signs of a generalized allergic reaction, additional actions will be required.
Eliminate intoxication and generalized symptoms
Signs of a generalized allergic reaction that can occur after a bite of a hornet are:
- increased body temperature;
- strong palpitations;
- abdominal pain.
At the slightest hint of these symptoms, you need to take dipedrol or Fenistil in tablets as soon as possible in order to weaken the action of histamine. In addition, the more liquid will be drunk to the affected during this period, the better, since abundant drink significantly reduces the symptoms of intoxication.
In case of fever, take antipyretics only after 38 ° C.
If the victim is experiencing severe dizziness, confusion, or breathing difficulties - it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance, asking at the same time to advise by phone about the necessary actions. If for some reason it is not possible to call an ambulance, it is possible to give the victim Suprastin (1-2 tablets 4 times a day), Prednisolone (4 tablets per day) or one Loratadine tablet (these drugs can lead to side effects , so a doctor's consultation is very necessary, at least by phone).
It is not possible to drink diprasine during the development of an allergic reaction to the bite of a hornet. This drug itself can cause allergies and only aggravate the already existing symptoms.
Particularly severe cases
It is important to understand the following: if after the bite of a hornet all the new symptoms appear and the state of health rapidly deteriorates, the further development of an allergic reaction can be unpredictable and very rapid. With any such signs, you should immediately call an "ambulance" or, if possible, ask relatives or friends to take you to the hospital. It is impossible to get behind the wheel in this case.
In especially severe cases, doctors immediately inject epinephrine - this substance is an antagonist of acetylcholine, which causes the transmission of a nerve impulse, and stimulates the work of the heart. In critical situations, such an injection may well save a person's life.
Usually especially severe consequences are observed if the hornet bites in the neck or throat. In this case, the swelling of the upper respiratory tract is not so rare. Because of him, the victim can simply suffocate.
Artificial respiration here will not help, because because of the laryngeal edema air will simply not pass through the respiratory tract into the lungs. In the most extreme case, a so-called conicotomy is needed - a cut between the cricoid and thyroid cartilage. A hollow tube is inserted into this incision, which will provide the possibility of inhalation and exhalation, even with a strong edema of the larynx.
Different hornets - different bites
It can be said that on the whole, the bite of a hornet is undoubtedly dangerous. However, the degree of risk to human health after stinging different species of these insects is still not the same.
For example, bites of common European hornets rarely lead to serious consequences, and therefore can be dangerous mainly for people with increased sensitivity to the poisons of insects.
At the same time, huge Asian hornets in South-East Asia, Primorye and Japan are considered to be among the most dangerous insects in the world. For example, in Japan, about 40 people die each year from the bites of these hornets.
One giant Asian hornet injects into the wound a dose of poison that corresponds to a dose of 5-6 of its European relatives. In this case, the toxin of Asian hornets contains additional specific components that exert a more potent toxic effect on the human body.
That is why when traveling to Southeast Asia it is always worthwhile to have in your medicine cabinet at least Suprastin and painkillers. If you have a hypersensitivity to the poisons of insects, you need to bring an appropriate certificate from an allergist, which will help the local doctor in the emergency case to prescribe the right drugs.
However, the most reliable way to protect against the attack of hornets in nature or in the suburban area will be just due diligence and circumspection. Hornets - insects are pretty peace-loving, they attack a person only when he accidentally touches them, actively waving their hands or intentionally trying to destroy their nest.
So, if you see a hornet, just go around its side and do not make sudden movements. In this case, and the bite will not happen, and no emergency measures will not have to be taken.