If we assess the danger of an insect in terms of the toxicity of its poison and the damage it causes to the human body, the hornets can indeed occupy one of the leading positions. A hornet is dangerous for a human being because its poison is capable of affecting not only the tissues at the point of stinging, but also the entire organism as a whole.
Particularly serious damage to human health is caused by large tropical species of these insects: the poison of these hornets can well lead to the death of a person. Nevertheless, the lethal outcome can also occur with the bite of smaller European hornets: if an attack was carried out by a person who is highly sensitive to the poisons of insects, then without a professional medical care of his life, serious danger can be threatened.
However, despite such cases, in fact hornets are peaceful for many of their relatives: bees, collective wasps and some ants. Even with a strong poison in its arsenal, these insects are not the greatest danger, since they are used extremely rarely and only in exceptional situations.
If a person, according to the "opinion" of a hornet, attacks him or threatens a nest, then the insect will certainly be angry and aggressive. In this case, the answer to the question "is the hornet dangerous for man?" Will be obvious.
It is interesting
As scientific research shows, even if a person tries to catch a hornet purposefully, the insect prefers to flee rather than attack the offender. Hornets attack only with obvious aggression in their direction: if they sit down, grabbing their hands or destroying the nest.
The effect of hornets poison on the human body
As it was said above, the danger of a hornet for a man is explained primarily by the presence of a powerful poison in an insect. Thanks to a special complex composition, the hornet has a variety of detrimental effects on various tissues and organs.
Let's look at how a bite of this insect acts on a person.
- The first one is a sharp, throbbing pain. Those, for example, who were stung by giant Asian hornets, compare the bite with the nail driven into the body. The pain from the poison of the European hornet, of course, is less impressive, but in general it is comparable with the sensations after the sting of the bee.
- The place is swollen, there is swelling and inflammation.
- The poison causes destruction of cells and walls of blood vessels. As a consequence, local hemorrhages appear, and in especially severe cases - extensive hematomas, suppuration and general poisoning of the body.
- In addition, the toxin stimulates headaches, increased heart rate, dizziness, fever.
Nevertheless, in most cases, the effects of a single bite of a single horn are limited to the appearance of a small swelling and swelling in the lesion. If the hornets are attacked by a group, their bites lead to extensive inflammation, hemorrhage and even necrotic tissue damage. There are numerous cases where, due to delays in contacting the hospital, the injured people had to amputate their fingers.
The composition of the hornet's poison includes substances characteristic of snake venom and causing the decay of cells. As a result, a multitude of cellular components that are at the molecular level "garbage", demanding from the point of view of the organism of immediate disposal, enter the tissue. There is a complex microbiological process, resulting in the emergence of tumors and edema.
Among other things, the poison contains acetylcholine - a compound that causes the activation of nerve endings. Simply put, the toxin of an insect when it enters the skin first-first acts on the nervous system of a person, activating burning pain even before pronounced tissue damage.
"The hornet bit me once, even when I was living in India. My father had a small farm in the suburbs of Mumbai, and there I was bitten by an ordinary small hornet. It was amazingly painful, there was a feeling that shot was shot in the leg. The pain lasted for several days, and my mother pricked me with anesthetic. The leg above the bite in the area of the knee was swollen and did not bend, but in general I felt fine and even lame walked along the street. "
But all these effects, even accompanied by a general intoxication of the body, can not lead to death. A truly hornet is dangerous to humans in the case, even if not strong, but still available sensitivity to the poisons of insects. The hornet's poison is extremely allergenic, and if the human immune system is not able to cope with it, the likelihood of a lethal outcome is menacingly high.
Allergy and anaphylactic shock
Can a hornet kill a man? Let even one, and not tropical, and the most usual, European? Let's find out.
Not only that the hornet itself contains histamine - the catalyst of all instant allergic reactions - so also some of the substances that make up the toxin of this insect, contribute to the release of its own histamine from the affected tissues of the body.
It is not surprising that after the bite of the hornet almost immediately and all the victims without exception develop an allergic reaction. The degree of its manifestation depends solely on the individual sensitivity of people: in some cases, the hornet bites only local inflammation, others - a rapidly spreading immune response with an increase in body temperature and difficulty breathing, the third - anaphylactic shock and death.
To date, thanks to the development of medicine and pharmacology, people who know about the characteristics of their immune system can be vaccinated with special vaccines that increase the resistance to poison of insects in general and hornets in particular. Such vaccinations will not make the bites themselves painless, but will ensure the weakening of the allergic reaction and, as a consequence, protect against anaphylactic shock and probable death from it.
It is worth noting that the attack of several hornets simultaneously in any case will pose a serious danger absolutely for everyone: in this case neither the relatively good tolerability of the poison nor the vaccination will save the allergic reaction.
How to attack hornets
The most dangerous is the hornet near its nest - protecting it, the insect can attack even without visible provocations from the person. And if someone comes up with the idea of trying to remove a nest, drowning it in a bucket or smoking people, then the attack is guaranteed.
Attacking, this large wasp emits special aromatic substances into the air, which are a signal for other individuals. As a rule, after such an "appeal" all nest residents are distracted from their affairs and begin to attack - not only the offender, but also anyone who is nearby. It is these situations that are most dangerous and most often lead to serious bites and even death of a person.
In general, withdrawing the hornet "out of itself" and provoke aggression is not an easy task, and it is necessary to try very hard to make the insect, so to speak, anger.
Thus, a hornet, engaged in hunting or collecting building material for a nest, treats a person very indifferently.
If the insect feels that it is being persecuted, then first of all it will try to hide; if you try to catch him, he will also choose the option of escape. Occupy a defensive position and defend the hornet will only be in the hands of a person, under his foot or other part of the body.
Thus, the aggressiveness of the hornet is a very ambiguous phenomenon. Like every human being, every single insect is aggressive to its individual degree: some are very calm and bite only with a pronounced danger, while others can provoke even seemingly non-aggressive actions in the eyes of the person.
It is interesting
The length of the sting of the European hornet is 3 mm, and the huge Asian hornet is twice as large - 6 mm or more.
A characteristic and very entertaining feature of these insects is that the smaller the size of the individual, the more aggressiveness it exhibits. So, more often than not others and in large quantities sting small Japanese hornets , while their huge "brothers" differ in incredible peace.
European hornets, inhabiting our country, are also very calm and attack much less often than wasps or even bees. In most cases, hornets attack beekeepers and gardeners who try to destroy their nests or establish special traps for wasps and hornets in the immediate vicinity of insect dwellings.
"The only negative memory from this summer is the attack of hornets on me and my husband. We have a site near the landing, and from there the hornets arrive on the blackberry. Somehow everything went smooth without conflicts, and this time we were attacked by many hornets. This is horror, of course. He's like a zandalite, so it's getting darker in the eyes of pain. I was bitten by four hornets, my husband - nine. Well, we managed to quickly run into the shower and turn on the water. They scared it off. I immediately began to pound in my head, my legs gave way, my heart ached. My husband seemed to feel better, but his whole face was so blown up that he could not open his eyes. So we sat for half a day in front of the shower. I can not get up, Sasha - to go. Then they reached the summer kitchen, poured themselves with pills, decided not to call an ambulance. I got bumps from bites in a week, Sasha had ten days. "
In the video - about the attack of hornets on a man:
Sad statistics: hornets really kill
The overwhelming majority of information about attacks of hornets is not a folk fiction, but a fact confirmed by official sources.
So, in Japan, for example, hornets are almost the most dangerous representatives of the local fauna - they kill about 40 people every year. More people in this country do not die from any land animal. Sometimes even predatory sharks are local hornets-killers, if, of course, it is appropriate to apply this expression in such a serious situation, give a head start.
The statistics of Japan and China are not far behind: in 2012 in Hainan Province, more than 1600 people were attacked by giant Asian hornets, 42 of them were killed.
Every year, several hundred people turn because of the bites of hornets and hospitals in the United States. It is worth noting that initially, before the time of industrial development in America, hornets were not found on the territory of this country - here they are introduced, ie. imported man, a species that gradually captures more and more new lands.
But different stories of eyewitnesses about cruel hornets, transmitted from mouth to mouth and gradually growing additional "facts", in actual fact are fiction - often for hornets are accepted ordinary wasps.
If, however, the hornet, to whatever species it belongs, nevertheless stings, in the first place the place of bite should be smeared with alcohol or any balm like "Rescuer", "Menovazin" or "Fenistila". At the slightest suspicion of the development of an allergic reaction, i.e. with fever, dizziness and other symptoms, mentioned above, it is necessary to take antipyretic and analgesic drugs and urgently go to the hospital.
Remember: any signs of an allergy may indicate a risk of anaphylactic shock. Reinsurance, do not rely on the Russian maybe your health is in your hands!