Cabbage moth is a widely spread pest throughout the world. This butterfly is known for the fact that its caterpillars can only drive a few cabbage cabbage heads into a kind that can not be stored - because of the holes gnawing in the leaves, the cabbage starts to deteriorate quickly enough, and can be stored for no more than a few weeks.
At the same time, the cabbage moth itself is quite unsightly in appearance, and does not rush into the eyes of truck farmers. However, being so inconspicuous in the fields, it constantly keeps agronomists in a tone, as its caterpillars are able to quickly develop on wild rapeseed and rape along the borders of fields, and are constantly threatening to cause serious harm to the whole crop. That is why the struggle with the cabbage moth continues from year to year, and with time it becomes more and more fierce.
Pest description: appearance and characteristics
Cabbage moth belongs to the family of ermines. These butterflies are known for having a slender, elongated body, and some types of ermine moths are bright and contrast colored.
However, this does not apply to cabbage moths. She is a butterfly with a discreet, patronizing color. Her wings have a neat light brown color, with a light pattern in the center. When a butterfly rests on a plant, when viewed from above it looks like a small straw.
The butterfly's wings have a length of about 7-8 mm. The cabbage moth is an unimportant flyer, and, as a rule, the butterfly does not fly away from the exit from the chrysalis. Her wings have a beautiful fringe around the edges, and at the ends in the quiet state of the insect, they are slightly upraised. The photo below shows a butterfly when viewed from above:
and below it is the same, only on the side:
But the caterpillar of the cabbage moth is painted in a gently green color. Her body is covered with thin hairs, her head almost brown. Caterpillars are rarely found in large clusters, as a rule, one or two larvae are present on one plant.
Cabbage moth eggs are small and have an elongated shape, reaching a length of 0.44 mm and a width of 0.26 mm. The color of the eggs is green, as is the fodder plant itself.
The cabbage of the cabbage moth has a dark yellow color and is usually found on the stems and leaves of the plant.
Lifestyle, nutrition and reproduction of cabbage moths
The cabbage moth is widespread all over the world. Its homeland is Southern Europe, and initially the habitat of the pest was limited to territories where winter frosts destroyed pupae and adult butterflies.
However, today the cabbage moth actively conquers even the agricultural lands of the Murmansk region, successfully hibernating in mulch and among unharvested grass, and from the very cabbage managed to spread across America, Asia and Africa. Moreover, some cultures in Australia, New Zealand and the Hawaiian Islands are seriously affected by this butterfly. It can be recognized as a true cosmopolitan.
It is interesting
The seizure of the world with a cabbage moth was swift and something like a victorious procession of the Colorado potato beetle on the potato beds of the Old World, only in the opposite direction. In 1854, the butterfly was first registered in Illinois, and at the beginning of the last century successfully passed through the ridge of the Rocky Mountains and discovered itself in British Columbia.
The cabbage moth is famous for the speed of its reproduction. Eggs develop 2-3 days, caterpillars have time to fatten for one and a half or two weeks, another week or two continues the development of the pupa. As a result, in the north, the mole gives 1-2 generations per summer, in the central strip of Russia and Europe - 3, in the Southern regions (Krasnodar, Stavropol Territory) - 4 generations, and in the south of Kazakhstan, Ukraine and the Transcaucasus - up to 6 generations for one warm season.
On a note
At temperatures below plus 4 ° C, caterpillars and cabbage moth eggs die.
Hibernating puppies and adults.
One female lays up to 165 eggs for her life, but at the same time she has no more than 4 eggs in each clutch, usually 2-3 eggs. This distribution reduces the death of eggs from predators and parasites.
An adult butterfly eats nectar flowers, and the caterpillar feeds exclusively on the tissues of the leaves of fodder plants. Actually, this is what harms the crop.
Damage to the butterfly and signs of its appearance on the site
Small caterpillars that have just emerged from the eggs immediately gnaw out the outer shell of the leaf of the plant and at first feed inside it, forming mines. After reaching a certain size, the larvae come to the surface of the leaf and continue to feed on its tissues, leaving only a thin outer shell on the other side.
Caterpillars of the cabbage moth can feed on almost any cruciferous plants - all varieties of cabbage, radish, radish, trout, turnip, rape, mustard.
The greatest damage to the caterpillars brings Cruciferae plantings in the hottest summer period, reducing the assimilative capacity of the leaves and increasing the number of leaf burns. On young plants caterpillars actively gnaw on buds and buds, because of what the total number of ovaries on the plant decreases.
External signs of the appearance of moths on the site are numerous:
- noticeable damage to the external and rosette leaves of cruciferous
- appearance of gnawed kidneys and damaged young cabbage on cabbage
- Mines visible in the light in the leaves
- the caterpillars themselves.
Often a good sign of the defeat of the cabbage bush moth is the rapid drying out of the outer leaves of the cabbage head or the stopping of the growth of the head in general.
This is due to damage to the base of its larva.
Methods of combating cabbage moths
Activities to combat cabbage moths are numerous and should be applied in a complex. Among them:
- Careful smell of crop residues and plant-siderates. It is on them that a large number of pupae remain to winter. From the ground in the spring butterflies can not get out.
- Weed control, especially - near the sites. They are often breeding grounds for pests.
- If more than 10% of plants are affected or if more than 4 caterpillars are found on one bush, treatment of bushes with insecticides.
On a note
Cabbage moths have a huge number of enemies, not just enemies like birds, lizards and toads. Many riders and wasps lay their eggs in the body of the caterpillars of this butterfly, and their larvae destroy the caterpillar itself, not allowing it to pupate. Sometimes such parasites destroy up to 90% of caterpillars and pupae of moths. Today, biological methods of fighting moths with the help of such insect assistants are being actively developed.
However, with insecticides in cabbage moth, acquaintance is already very long, and therefore their use is less and less effective.
Means for pest control
The cabbage moth was the first agricultural pest to develop resistance to Entobacterin, a drug based on pathogens for moth bacteria. A little later, a population of cabbage scoop, also resistant to this agent, was discovered.
It is interesting
Back in the 1980s, the cabbage moth developed resistance to pyrethroids and pyrethrins, and a few years later, scientists discovered populations of this moth that are resistant to most of the insecticides used in agriculture.
Nevertheless, totally stable populations of moths are rare. Therefore, in the gardens against the pest, you can use Entobakterin, Bitoksibatsillin, Lepidotsid, as well as funds based on pyrethroids and pyrethrins.
Only if the application of a particular drug does not give an obvious result, you should switch to another one. Most likely, already at the first attempts, a remedy capable of destroying a mole will be discovered.
It is important to remember that it was the widespread and thoughtless use of insecticides that hardened the moth and contributed to its development of resistance. Therefore, in the fight against a pest first of all you should use the agrotechnical methods, and poisons only complement them.