The wasp is not the only insect that can hurt very much. Ants, bees, bugs, flies and even some dragonflies bite no less sensitively, and at times much more painful than ordinary wasps.
However, among the bites of all insects, the bite of a wasp is reasonably considered one of the most dangerous - in some countries of the world more people die from bites than from attacks of any other wild animals and insects in the region.
It is interesting
The most painful bites among all insects belong to South American bullet ants. On a special scale of stinging power, this ant has a 4+ index. On the second place of the pedestal are bites of road wasps hunting poisonous spiders - they have an index of 4. And in the third place - with index 3 - the usual wasps are usual for all of us. Their bites for soreness are approximately equal to the bites of the largest predatory bugs.
Below the photo shows a road wasp, whose bites are very, very painful:
And in this photo you can see an ordinary paper box:
Despite the incredible pain, the bites of wasps are not dangerous for this reason. Although the main goal of the insect itself in the defense is precisely to inflict pain on a potential enemy for its scare, the threat to human health is determined primarily by the possibility of developing an allergic reaction to toxins contained in the poison.
Wasp venom is the strongest allergen causing most people to have extensive local edema. However, if a wasps bite occurs in a person especially sensitive to toxins, the probability of developing much more serious allergic reactions will be quite high.
Such an immune response of the organism of the victim in some cases can even lead to death; and due to the fact that in some countries there is a large number of attacks of wasps, it is these cases that form sad statistics.
In the photo - a bite of a wasp under normal reaction of an organism to it:
And in this photo there are signs of severe allergies with strongly pronounced edema:
It is interesting
The most dangerous member of the family These wasps are a giant Asian hornet that inhabits Japan, Vietnam, Thailand, Burma and China. The poison of this insect is very strong and allergenic, its quantity falling into the body of the victim after the bite is large enough, and the hornet often stings several times in one attack. All this leads to the fact that in Japan alone, about 40 people per year die from the bites of these large wasps.
Japanese giant hornet (endemic subspecies of Asian) is presented in the photo below:
In addition to its toxicity, the bite of a wasp also has a number of interesting features. For example, wasps always easily take out their sting of their victim's skin, so it's useless to look for their "weapons" at the site of the bite. This, by the way, distinguishes the bite of a wasp from a bee stings.
The action of wasp venom
One of the main defining features of wasp venom is a large number of active ingredients in it. Each of them is responsible for one or another reaction in the affected area, but at the same time complements and in many ways enhances the action of the other. That is why the overall effect of the bite of the wasp is much stronger than the simple total effect of different components of the poison.
Thus, with the bite of a wasp, acetylcholine in its toxin causes a strong irritation of the nerve endings in the tissues damaged by the poison. For a person, this means a sharp pain that occurs almost immediately, even before the wasp has time to remove its sting.
Contained in the poison, histamine enhances the action of acetylcholine and stimulates the development of an allergic reaction. It is he who is one of the culprits for the appearance of edema and inflammation at the site of the bite.
"Destructors" of cells of damaged tissues are phospholipases. They trigger the process of the outflow of cell contents into the intercellular space and cause inflammation, a protective reaction of the organism aimed at utilization of both the toxins themselves and the already unnecessary cell contents.
Phospholipases also destroy the mast cells in the affected tissues, which are a kind of reservoir of their own histamine. As a result, this substance in huge quantities gets into the blood and is a secondary cause of allergy - and stronger than from histamine itself wasp venom.
Upon contact of cytotoxins contained in the venom with small blood vessels, their walls are destroyed, and as a consequence, hemorrhage. In the event that a wasp stings in the arm or leg, it manifests itself in the form of small subcutaneous hematomas (bruises), but with multiple bites, life-threatening internal hemorrhages become possible.
On a note
One of the toxins in wasp venom - mastoparan - is specific for these insects. Its main effect is directly in the destruction of mast cells and the isolation of histamine. However, there is an unusual dependence - in large quantities it prevents the development of inflammation - a regular in such cases. As for the wasp venom, in its composition mastoparan is in quantities sufficient to trigger an allergic reaction, but too small to prevent the development of inflammation.
In the photo - a typical inflammation in the place of a bite of a wasp:
In addition to the above, there are additional consequences of the bite of a wasp, namely:
- increased blood sugar, which is very dangerous for people with diabetes;
- increased cardiac output;
- lowering blood pressure;
- quickening of breathing.
Typically, these symptoms are less pronounced compared to tissue damage and a local or general allergic reaction, so they are often simply not seen by the affected.
It is interesting
Modern scientists are trying to use the cytotoxins contained in the poison to create a cure for cancer: it is noted that these substances are capable of rapidly destroying cancer cells. To date, the scientific task is to make cytotoxins selectively affect the tumor, but do not touch healthy cells and tissues.
Consequences of bites of wasps
All the above processes occur at the micro level, and in most cases the victims do not care at all - they pay attention only to those bite manifestations that are clearly visible to the naked eye.
So, the first thing that a person feels when he bites a wasp (and can not help noticing) is a severe pain. It arises at a time when the sting of the insect has not yet been removed from the body of the victim, and is growing, becoming more acute with time.
Further, the bitten person feels more and more new symptoms, such as:
- redness at the site of the bite, which occurs already in the first minutes after the introduction of a particular poison;
- swelling and swelling that develops 1-3 minutes after stinging and gradually increasing in size (it is due to them that the bite of a wasp looks like a big red lump);
- itching, which always accompanies the pain syndrome and is usually present for slightly longer than the pain itself (often the bite of the wasp is itchy).
With a normal reaction of the body to bite with these consequences, stinging wasps is usually limited. Clearly visible redness drops rapidly, and the swelling of the usual fleshy color remains on the site of the bite.
In the photo - a bite of a wasp just a few minutes after stinging:
"I do not understand why these wasps are so afraid." Yes, painfully bite, but not fatal, a day later this bite goes away. I was recently stung at work by one such - and what? I washed it with cold water, I put a bottle from the fridge and forgot, by the end of the shift, where I was bitten. So, the cone was small, and that's it. Of course, if you start squeezing something out there, smear it, stab it - it will swell from the drugs themselves. My mother-in-law had it that way. She drank three tablets, and kept some kind of lotion, and it carried the whole thing to half a hand. And then it took almost a week. "
Below, the photo shows how a wasp sting can appear a day after stinging:
A small amount of rashes on the skin in the bite area is also considered a normal reaction, and if the bite falls on the joint area, a slight tremor in it is allowed.
Significantly less common is the development of more serious allergy symptoms. These include:
- far from the place of bite swelling;
- abundant - all over the body - hives;
- nausea, fever;
- headaches and abdominal pain, dizziness;
- anaphylactic shock.
It is very important to understand that there is no uniform norm for the manifestation of allergy symptoms in different people: in some they develop only a few hours after the bite, while in others they develop almost instantaneously, within a few seconds. It is in the latter cases that the bite of a wasp presents maximum danger, since the victim can simply not be in time to provide the necessary assistance.
Bites of the wasps in certain parts of the body can present an increased danger. For example, a bite in the tongue, throat, neck or nose can lead to strangulation of the victim, stinging in the genitals - to cause the inability to perform urination, and the bite in the eye sometimes ends with cataracts, glaucoma, atrophy of the iris and other very serious consequences.
Below you can see in the photo how the wasp bite looks complicated by the extensive swelling:
"I always treated the wasps with some disdain. Probably, because they often bitten me in my childhood, and I just got used to it. Last summer I only saw how one woman was bitten by a wasp on the beach, she lost consciousness in five minutes, probably. I wanted to laugh at first, I thought, I must fall out of fear in a swoon. And then, when I approached, I saw how her face swelled, her neck was all over, her eyes swelled. It can be seen that her sensitivity is high. The ambulance came, took her away, and I do not know how it ended. Therefore, if the wasp sucks, then it all depends on your body. "
Multiple bites of wasps and their danger
Separate discussion deserve multiple bites of wasps. If a person bites several insects at the same time, the effect of bites on the body increases in proportion to their number.
For people with a normal reaction to wasp venom, even 5-6 insect bites do not pose a threat to life. The only thing is that they can be accompanied by copious subcutaneous hemorrhages, if they happen to be about the same place (there will be a huge bruise).
On a note
A lethal dose of aspen poison for a person who does not have a pronounced sensitivity to the toxin of this insect is 30-40 mg of poison per 1 kg of body weight. With one bite, the wasp introduces about 0.4 mg of venom into the wound. That is, for an adult weighing 70 kg, approximately 700 bites will be fatal. But this is only in the absence of an allergic reaction!
The most dangerous for health, and sometimes for human life are multiple bites of hornets - the next of kin of ordinary wasps. Each hornet is able to sting its victim several times in one attack. If the whole group assembles insects, then their attack can result in the most extensive hemorrhages (including internal) and necrotic lesions of tissues.
In the photo you can see the consequences of the attack of the giant Asian hornet, which was mentioned above:
Should I say in this case about allergic people, for whom single attacks are a great danger, and multiple bites of wasps and, especially, hornets, in general, threaten life. It is logical that such people have an allergic reaction at times sharper and more serious.
The bite of a wasp: where and why it happens most often
Despite the danger and apparent aggressiveness of wasps, their bites are just a nature-invented way of self-defense and defense. Against the insects, which the wasps use as food for their larvae, poison and sting are rarely used. But the wasp is always ready to meet the potential enemy.
Most often, wasps bite a person in the following situations:
- In nature, when it comes too close to the nest;
- in suburban areas, whose owners can try to deliberately destroy the hindering nesting nests or accidentally touch the osu, sitting on the berry during harvesting;
- in markets where they sell fruit or process fish and meat (the wasps here, as a rule, accidentally come under the hands of sellers or workers);
- on the balconies, where the wasps sometimes arrange their nests;
- when accidentally clapping an insect, if it fell under the clothes.
The photo below shows a nest of paper wasps. If such a design comes to the eye, it should be avoided in order to avoid unpleasant consequences:
In some cases, the wasps attack, it would seem, without a visible reason - away from the nest. However, a detailed analysis of the situation in most cases shows that the insect was either squashed or spoiled from the feeding site, which is why it took the person for the offender.
Be that as it may, the wasps never attack a person to feed - they have a completely different "nature". Each bite occurs only within the framework of self-defense, even if not always understandable to a person .
What should I do if I bite a wasp?
In conclusion, let's talk about what to do if a wasp stung . To minimize the consequences, it is necessary to carry out several simple actions.
- Try to suck out poison from the wound. It sucks, and not squeezed out, because with pressure increases blood circulation at the site of the bite, and the poison will spread even more quickly under the skin.
- To neutralize at least part of the poison with any available acid - table vinegar, citric acid, a piece of orange or apple. This should be done as quickly as possible, because the wound at the site of the wasp stings is very quickly tightened.
- Apply a cold compress - ice, meat from the freezer, a bottle of water to the wound.
All these manipulations will help reduce the size of the edema and the strength of the manifestation of other symptoms.
If the victim has the first signs of an allergy (for example, the general condition worsens, the temperature rises, dyspnea and chest pain appear), he needs to drink Suprastin or Dimedrol and immediately see a doctor. Every lost minute in this situation can cost lives!
In general, it is much easier to just warn the bites of wasps. To do this, it is enough to be as careful and tidy as possible in nature - to inspect the place on which it is planned to sit down, gently tear berries and fruits, and if a cluster of wasps or their nest is found, slowly and quietly leave.
Do not slap on an insect that just sat on your arm or leg. If the wasp is not going to fly away by itself, it's enough to slip a piece of paper and release it - most likely, she will take advantage of the opportunity to retire and the incident will be exhausted.