Few people do not know what a bite is wasps: the consequences of it are familiar to almost every adult, and many from memory from childhood. Severe pain, redness, swelling and itching - this is the standard reaction to the aspen bite.
Meanwhile, the consequences of attacks of these insects can be much more severe. What is dangerous is the bite of a wasp? Let's understand ...
First of all, the bites of Hymenoptera insects (which include wasps, hornets, bees and some others) are distinguished by their high allergenicity. In addition to toxins that destroy the walls of cells of affected tissues and affect the nerve endings, aspen poison also contains substances that can cause a powerful immune response of the body.
If there is no hypersensitivity to the venom of the wasps, the person does not feel these allergens. If the victim is hypersensitive (such people are also called sensitized), for him, the bite of a wasp can be dangerous even more than, for example, the attack of a poisonous spider.
"I got a map of an allergic person last summer after the bite of a wasp. I was always indifferent to them, because my grandfather was a bee-keeper, so I spent all my childhood bitten by bees. The doctor said that because of this and all the problems.
Near the canteen at work I was bitten by a wasp, the temperature rose, my head began to hurt, a rash appeared on my face. I was almost completely unconscious, my whole body was sprinkled. It's good that my daughter immediately called an ambulance. They pissed me off. They said that it was very bad. Then the doctor looked, took tests, said that I have very high sensitivity. And that if you do not have a special syringe with a medicine, then death from a bite of a wasp is quite possible for me. Such are the cases. "
The most unpleasant thing here is that no one really knows if he has such a sensitivity, or not. It can be congenital, and can evolve over time in response to the bites of different insects. Therefore complications after an attack of wasps can arise unexpectedly and at everyone.
On a note
The deadly bite of a wasp is very rare, but it sometimes happens. For example, in the United States, more people die from attacks of Hymenoptera each year than from snake bites. And from the type of insect there is not so much depends: it may be fatal as a sting of ordinary paper beetle, and honey bee.
Wasp venom and its specificity
The wasp venom is similar in its composition to the poisons of other hymenopterans - bees, hornets, bumblebees, some tropical ants - but also has its own characteristics.
Here are some of the active components of wasp venom:
- phospholipases, causing destruction of cell walls, swelling and inflammation;
- melitin - a component that promotes hemolysis (destruction) of mast cells;
- apamin - a toxin that exerts a strong influence on the nervous system, including motor nerves;
- Acetylcholine, which directly affects the conduct of nerve impulses;
- histamine, the main function of which is to start the mechanism of an allergic reaction (it is the neutralization of histamine that is directed to the action of antiallergic drugs, which are called antihistamines);
- MCD-peptide, which destroys mast cells and causes an avalanche-like increase in the amount of histamine in the blood (as a consequence, the development of an allergic reaction is accelerated);
and some others.
Part of the destruction of the cell walls is associated with the fact that often the bite of a wasp for a long time hurts and passes rather slowly: an inflammation develops in the affected area, which disappears as the cells recover. When the walls of small blood vessels are destroyed, a hemorrhage occurs - this is especially true when biting hornets.
The reaction of people to the action of aspen poison is largely individual. On average, a healthy person's bite of a wasp hurts for several days, and completely its effects pass through a week and a half.
In different species, the venom has a different composition. So, for example, the bite of the so-called road wasp, long and slender, is considered one of the most painful among all known insects in the world (even more bitten by a tropical bullet ant). But the bites of wild wasps (paper, whose nests can be found, for example, on trees in the forest) differ little from the bites of these same insects, but build their nests, for example, in the suburban areas.
It is interesting
There are very large predatory wasps-philanthropists, feeding on bees. Their bite is generally insensitive, and the beekeepers catch and press them with their bare hands. On the contrary, small wasps, the size of a house ant, live on open spaces, which bite approximately as painfully as ordinary paper wasps. Therefore, the bite of some not quite familiar in appearance of the forest wasp can be unpredictable in its consequences.
How does a wasp bite look like?
Usually the trace from a wasp attack is similar to a large reddish cone, in the center of which it is often possible to notice a puncture left by the sting of an insect.
Below the photo shows a fresh trail from the bite of the wasp:
Enough "bright" (and dangerous) consequences can be observed in those cases when a person has an increased sensitivity to insect bites - in this case, the allergic reaction dramatically increases the external manifestations of the bite. For example, the bite of a wasp in the face sometimes leads to what a person simply can not see, as the face swells and both eyes are closed. And a rather rare bite of a wasp in the tongue can lead to such a strong swelling that the victim will not be able to close his mouth.
In the photo below - the consequences of a wasp sting in the face:
Conversely, in some people, the bite of a wasp in the head may outwardly be virtually invisible.
"Our little one was not the most fortunate. He was bitten right between the eyes. So for three days he walked at all with his eyes closed, with his hand with his grandmother. It's good that the wasps did not reach the throat, otherwise I do not know how Dima could breathe ... "
Consequences of bites of wasps: from the usual to the most severe
As already noted above, the most typical and quite common consequences after a bite of a wasp are a minor edema of the affected area and pain. The intensity of pain and the severity of the edema largely depend on the location of the bite and on how much the affected person is sensitive to the insect's venom.
Usually, after a few hours, a strong itching joins the pain, and the soreness itself passes quickly enough, but the itching can last several days, especially if the bite is constantly scratching.
Inflammation after a bite of a wasp in nonsensitized people is rarely extensive, but sometimes too long does not pass. If the bump keeps on the body for more than two weeks, you need to see the doctor.
Dangerous complications after a bite of a wasp can be caused by the different reasons, for example:
- if the attack of wasps on a person was massive and there are many bites, then on the body hemorrhages (subcutaneous hemorrhages) may appear, with bites in the limb, loss of their mobility and strong tremor are not uncommon;
- the victim may feel pain in the heart, dizziness, sometimes confusion due to a sharp decrease in blood pressure (and it does not matter whether the wasp stung in the chest or in the hand - important is the person's hypersensitivity to aspen poison);
- It is very dangerous when a wasp bites in the throat or neck - swelling in this case can lead to the blockage of the airways and asphyxia;
- bite directly into the mucous membranes of the eye leads to severe inflammation, sometimes with subsequent suppuration and hemorrhages, it is possible that irreversible visual impairment of one degree or another can be excluded;
- dangerous and a bite in the genital area - while urinating causes severe pain, and in some cases because of severe swelling in general becomes impossible.
Be that as it may, the main complications from the bites of wasps are in most cases associated with an allergic reaction.
Allergy to bites of wasps
So, the bite of a wasp is dangerous, first of all, due to the high allergenicity of the poison of this insect. Allergic effects in this case can be both unobtrusive, and have a generalized form.
The usual response of the immune system of any person to a wasp sting is inflammation. This "response" of the body is necessary for the localization of toxins in the affected area and rapid destruction by special cells of the immune system. However, inflammation is perhaps the most harmless consequence of a wasp attack.
At times more dangerous than other severe allergy symptoms:
- Temperature. Even from a single bite of a wasp, it can rise to 39-40 ° C and occasionally higher. At a temperature of up to 38 ° C, it should not be knocked down, because toxins are quickly neutralized.
- Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain. They do not require washing the stomach or receiving activated carbon, but when they appear, it is desirable to refrain from eating.
- Quincke's edema is a very dangerous manifestation of an allergic reaction, sometimes leading to an overlap of the airways. It occurs precisely in sensitized people (in patients with normal immunity, even in infants, such edema does not develop).
If there is a risk of blocking the airways during Quincke's edema, you should always contact the doctors - at least by phone - for instructions on how to further help a person. It may be that in order to provide the victim with air, conicotomy is needed - an incision in the throat area to install a tube that allows breathing.
- Anaphylactic shock is the most dangerous thing that can happen with a wasp sting, since in 10-15% of cases this condition ends with the death of a person. All the previous symptoms may be a harbinger of shock, and in addition to them, the victim's anaphylaxis becomes blue fingers, there is a sharp pain in the chest. For adequate assistance, a person should call the doctor as soon as possible and get appropriate advice.
It should be borne in mind that sensitivity to the bites of the wasps can develop gradually. With each new attack - regardless of the time interval between them - the body can react to a portion of the poison more sharply, and after a certain amount of stinging, any "meeting" with a special one may already be fraught with a life-threatening allergic reaction.
In other words, in the case of the development of sensitization, the second, fifth, and twentieth bite can be extremely dangerous - everything is very individual here, and it is impossible to say specifically how many bites are deadly to a person.
On a note
Concerning the largest os - hornets - the people even believe that it is nine bites that they are enough to cause death. According to the legend, it does not matter how much time passed between the stings - a year or ten years - as soon as they are typed nine, a person will die. That is why the hornet is sometimes called the "nine".
Speaking about the dangers of ocus bites, one can not fail to mention the multiple bites - even if a person does not have an allergy to poison, a simultaneous attack of several dozen insects can end for him fatal. It should be borne in mind that unlike bees, each wasp can sting repeatedly, as it does not leave its sting in the skin of the victim during the attack.
Generally speaking, the body of a healthy person (namely, its immune system) is able to quickly neutralize aspenic poison, thereby reducing its harmful effects on tissues and organs. However, if the wasp attacked an allergy sufferer, then it is absolutely impossible to wait for the organism to cope with toxins: it is necessary for such a person to provide first aid, and at the first alarming symptoms one should be contacted by phone with a doctor for advice.
The allergy can develop very rapidly, and without first-aid provided, the time spent on the road to the hospital can be irreparable.
What should I do if I bite a wasp?
In order to minimize the effects of an aspen bite, the first thing to do is to try to suck out the poison from the wound (without spending more than 60 seconds after the insect attack), then treat the affected area with an antiseptic and apply a cold compress as soon as possible. The cold will narrow the blood vessels and reduce the penetration of the poison into the bloodstream - for allergy sufferers this is very important, as long as the poison is localized, the negative effect it exerts on the body is minimal as a whole, and the active components of the poison continue to disintegrate continuously in the tissues.
Subsequently, the affected area can be treated with Fenistil gel or Advantan ointment.
Feedback (from forum posts)
"Igor: Tell me, how much does the wasps bite? On Saturday, that is, yesterday, I was bitten by one, so half the face spread, and tomorrow I have three presentations. I can not act like that in front of people. Is there any remedy to quickly remove this swelling?
Nemo: Go to the hospital, get a certificate and rest. The presentation does not shine for you. "
Further consequences of the bite may develop in three scenarios, each of which requires appropriate measures.
The first case is most favorable: at the site of the wasp bite, a small tumor that itches or hurts remains, but the general condition of the bitten is normal, it does not have a fever, there is no headache, the bite does not interfere with normal daily activities.
In this situation, it is recommended to treat the affected area with a suitable ointment or balm from insect bites. So the bite of a wasp will pass as quickly as possible. However, when choosing a remedy, you should always carefully read the instructions to it, because it may be that it is contraindicated for you.
So, for example, ointment Advantan exerts hormonal influence that excludes its use on extensive sites of a skin and a delicate skin of kids up to 4 months. Approximately the same hydrocortisone ointment acts; but the drug "Fenistil" in this regard is considered the most universal - it can be used even in children older than one month.
On a note
Remember that the bite of the wasp will not pass in any case before 1-2 days. Completely remove the tumor before its normal natural disappearance is unlikely to succeed.
The second scenario is most common, although less pleasant: no severe allergy symptoms, but the pain at the site of the bite is quite strong, the swelling and edema are spreading over the surrounding tissues. Pain in this case can prevent a person from working and resting normally, and the tumor can become too large.
In this case, the role of cold compress is especially important. It can also be useful to treat the affected area of the body with antihistamine or hormonal ointment - Fenistil-gel, Advantanum, hydrocortisone ointment. They all have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect, inhibit the development of the tumor and relieve pain. It is advisable that the ointment is on the skin at the site of the bite all the way up to a significant tumor falloff.
It is also necessary to consult a doctor (you can by phone) regarding taking antihistamines in tablets (Suprastin, Dimedrol). If the pain syndrome is expressed too much, then you can additionally use Menovazine, as well as analgesics in tablets.
In this situation, the victim needs to drink as much as possible, so that all products of tissue damage are rapidly excreted from the body, without leading to deterioration of well-being.
And, finally, the rarest, but also the most serious and dangerous case is the development of a strongly pronounced allergic reaction. Often, the situation first develops in the second scenario, with rapid growth of the tumor and severe pain, and then more severe symptoms begin to appear. They can be different: headache, nausea, fever, rashes on the body, swelling in places remote from the bite, allergic rhinitis, shortness of breath, asthma attacks, pain in the heart, sometimes diarrhea or vomiting.
The appearance of these symptoms is a signal to take emergency measures:
- As soon as possible, the victim needs to drink any antihistamine means of systemic action - Suprastin, Tavegin, Kestin, Claritin, Dimedrol or their analogs (you need a doctor's consultation, at least by phone).
- The site of the bite should be lubricated with Advantan or hydrocortisone ointment;
- If the victim is allergic and carries an autoinjector with adrenaline (epinephrine), then use it immediately after the bite, without even waiting for the appearance of any dangerous symptoms;
- If you lose consciousness, violate your pulse and breathing, you will need artificial respiration and indirect heart massage;
- The victim is delivered to the hospital as soon as possible.
It is important to understand that sometimes severe allergic reactions develop not just quickly, but lightning fast. In the practice of many doctors there were situations when the patient had an anaphylactic shock before the doctor managed to pull out the ampoule with adrenaline from the box and make an injection.
Therefore, at the first alarming symptoms, one must immediately begin transporting the bitten to the doctor, so that when the person is as serious as possible, the person is already under the control of specialists. This is precisely the situation where the life of a person can directly depend on your correct and timely actions.