Although wasps are not the most dangerous pests of grapes, nevertheless, they can quite significantly spoil the appearance of the bunches. For wine growers who grow fruits for direct sale, this is especially true - sometimes literally two or three bitten by insects berries completely deprive the bunch of its commodity appearance. In such cases, the desire to protect grapes from wasps is quite understandable, because it is directly related to the question of the profitability of growing crops.
In addition, wasps in most cases do not eat up the already damaged berries, but start gnawing and spoiling new ones, and indiscriminately: and already damaged bunches, and still untouched. As a consequence, even a relatively small number of insects can spoil a significant portion of the ripened harvest. For processing for the preparation of wine, it, of course, will fit, but sell such a spoiled grapes will be more difficult, and it will be stored much less time.
"My wasps regularly beat grapes, and at the time of harvesting, not a single untouched bunch remains. I noticed, by the way, this nuance: a wasp can gnaw out the flesh in a berry, and then after a meal make a pair of punctures on neighboring grapes. Under these punctures the flesh begins to wander, and in a couple of days the insects return here just for such a "brag". And they do not eat properly, they spoil a lot. "
The question of how to protect the crop and save it from regular "raids" has been troubling wine growers for more than a dozen years, and to date, many effective methods for protecting grapes from wasps have been developed by skilled gardeners. All these methods can be divided into two groups - active and passive.
The first work on the principle of "the best defense is an attack," and the final result of their implementation is the immediate destruction of the pests themselves: if not all, then at least their main part. In certain conditions, these methods of combating wasps on grapes are very effective, but sometimes are dangerous for the person himself.
The second group, passive methods of struggle, helps to save grapes from wasps, creating an insurmountable mechanical barrier for insects. Such methods can be considered sparing and more environmentally friendly. After all, it should be remembered that wasps, being pests of grapes, partly help the winegrower in the fight against other undesirable insects: the wasps actively destroy on the sites of bedbugs, grasshoppers, caterpillars, aphids who also like to eat sweet berries. Therefore, even despite the laboriousness, such barrier protection of grapes from wasps is used quite often - and the wasps are full and the bunches are intact.
All ways to protect the grapes
Now let's talk in more detail about how you can save your crop from wasps, and be able to protect it from these insects throughout the season.
Active methods of protection of grapes include the following approaches:
- Destruction of the nest of wasps - if their dwelling is liquidated before the ripening of the grapes, then there will be no one to spoil it. However, this method is suitable only for small private vineyards and situations where the gardener knows exactly where the nest is located on the site, because to search for it (and it may not be the only one) outside the vineyard, and even more so in a foreign garden or vegetable garden , it is extremely difficult.
- Fighting wasps in the vineyard with the help of special traps.
- And the third way - the extermination of insects with poisoned baits (for small farms, sometimes it is the best way to save grapes from wasps).
Passive methods of struggle usually do not lead to the death of winged pests. These include:
- Scarring of wasps from the vineyard is a rather ambiguous method, in which grapes and bushes themselves are sprayed with scaring chemical preparations. This method protects the crop, but in the future requires serious preparation of grapes for eating - it must be thoroughly washed from chemicals.
- Packaging of ripening bunches in special net protective bags. Perhaps, this is the most reliable method of protecting grapes. However, it is very labor-consuming and costly: for example, if in an economy with 30-40 bushes all the bunches can still be relatively easily hidden in such bags, then for a hundred bushes this package will require a very large amount of work and costs for the grids themselves.
Apparently, you can save your crop in different ways, however, in practice it is not so difficult to choose the most suitable method for combating wasps in grapes:
- if a nest is found on the site - it is destroyed first;
- if there are no aspens of nests on the site, and there are a lot of grapes, traps and / or poisoned baits are placed between the rows of bushes, which help to save valuable clusters from mass sabotage (the device and making such traps and baits will be discussed below);
- on an industrial scale, you can save grapes from wasps, spraying bushes with insecticides, and after harvesting, rinse berries in special devices;
- in small farms with expensive varieties of grapes grapes it is rational to hide in protective bags.
"We were furious when we started to notice that half of our elite Red Rose was literally gnawed by wasps. And the wasps do not eat the grapes completely, but only gnaw the bottom of the berry to the level of the bones and leave such hanging leathers to dry out. Nightmare. We did not even know what to do. Neighbors said that you can put special bags for grapes from the wasps to protect the bunches. We immediately bought such mesh, but we have a lot of grapes, and the mesh of money is, as it were, considerable in the amount. The Red Rose was closed, and the wine and the whole green dining room were collected and then beaten. Here, for the new season we are preparing traps for wasps, we really do not want to encounter such a problem again. "
Traps for wasps
The main advantage of traps for wasps is their high efficiency and simultaneous safety for humans - with their help you can get rid of pests without risking being bitten and not spraying the grapes themselves with potentially dangerous chemicals.
Such traps are made from ordinary plastic bottles. The upper third of the bottle is cut off, turned upside down and inserted into the lower part. Previously, in the lower half, bait is poured: beer with sugar, fermented jam, brag or kvass with bread.
Photo of traps for wasps:
It is not necessary to use as a bait a solution of honey or sweet syrup, which can be useful and do not spoil the grapes bees.
The Wasp, having penetrated the inverted neck into the bottle, can no longer get out of the trap: instinctively soaring along the walls, it will not be able to find a way out, and eventually just drown in the liquid bait. If you arrange on a site and regularly fill such traps from the beginning of summer, you can almost completely get rid of wasps in grapes.
Practice shows that a day in one such bottle can fly from a few dozen to a couple of hundred insects. Traps can be hung on the supports for grapes, placed in prominent places among the rows: the more they are, the more reliable it will be to save their harvest (experienced gardeners recommend setting at least one trap for each bush).
Poisoned lures and grape safety
One of the most effective ways to protect grapes from wasps is the use of poisoned baits. Some of these agents lead to the death of insects only a few hours after eating, while others begin to act almost instantly.
It should be noted that choosing this method of protection of grapes, one must remember one important feature: the bait should not have a strong "chemical" smell (otherwise the wasps simply ignore it). To date, there are a number of poisonous agents that meet this requirement - for example, powerful insecticides "Lambda Zone", "Delta Zone", "Get" and some others. All of them are practically odorless, relatively safe for human and domestic animals, but they have an excellent poisoning ability in relation to insects.
Lures are poured into saucers, cut bottoms of plastic bottles or in wide mugs and are exposed to prominent places near the grapes: the more they are on the site, the more reliable it will be to protect the grapes. As eating insects and natural evaporation, a poisoned treat should be added.
As a basis for the preparation of poisoned bait, it is usually used sour jam, beer or kvass with sugar, in addition to the above preparations, it is also possible to add boric acid or chlorophos in a ratio of 10: 1 (one part of the insecticide is taken by 10 parts of the base). Boric acid and chlorophos also have no smell, and therefore for insects in the composition of delicacies will be invisible.
Sweet and easily accessible "delicacies" in saucers attract os flying to grapes, and as a result, soon after feeding lead to the death of insects.
Sometimes, as bait, meat or lard, treated with boric acid or other insecticide odorless, is also used. Wasps gnaw out small pieces and carry them to their nest, where larvae and uterus are fed, which later perish.
Destroy the nest of insects
Destroying the nest of wasps - the operation is quite laborious and dangerous. The fact is that these insects, protecting the nest, can attack with a whole swarm, and therefore all actions should be carried out in dense clothing, the mask of the beekeeper and whenever possible at night.
Usually, the aspen nests are located under the roofs of the outbuildings, in cavities under the slate, between the material of the finish and the wall of the house, in the cavities of the pipes.
Destroy the nest in several ways:
- pour gasoline and burn;
- drown in a bucket of water;
- place in a bag with the insecticide solution previously poured into it;
- aerosol insecticides.
When choosing the first variant of destruction (burning), it is necessary to remember about fire safety measures - the nest of wasps is built of paper-like material, so it flares up quickly and quickly. At the same time, there is a serious danger of fire coming to nearby buildings or trees.
To drown the home of the wasps, a stepladder of the appropriate height is needed, which can be supported from below by a bucket of water, pressing it together with the socket inside to the ceiling.
Treatment with insecticide aerosols usually have to be done several times - for each intake the preparation will destroy a significant number of adult insects and larvae (part of the wasps will fly apart). Of course, this method requires a systematic approach, but it is relatively simple to perform and at the same time quite effective.
To destroy a particularly large or inaccessible nest of wasps, you can also call firefighters or a special brigade of pest control. In many cases, this allows not only to save the grapes, but also to protect the site owners from regular bites.
Mesh bags for protecting clusters: application rules, advantages and disadvantages
Even before the appearance of specialized protective pouches from a fine mesh used old female tights, which simply tightened bunches. This made it possible, with great reliability, to protect the grapes from wasps.
However, as the grapes ripened, the berries in such a grid were pressed, which raised the question of the need for a specialized solution. So there were sacks for protecting grapes from wasps from a thick polyethylene mesh at the eyelets, which freely fit the bunch and do not limit it in growth. Today, there are grids for grapes the size of a liter and three-liter cans.
The main disadvantage of such bags for grapes is the complexity of their application with a large number of bushes. However, they provide the most reliable protection of clusters, allow to do without the use of insecticides and can be used for several years in a row.
Wear bags for grapes on bunches should be found when the first berries, beaten by insects. In this case, you should always use bags with a stock in size.
It is also possible to scrape off the wasps by sprinkling it with special substances - either strongly smelling, or toxic to insects.
There are some folk remedies for this purpose: experienced gardeners recommend, for example, to use vinegar - wine or ordinary table. It is easily washed away from the bunches by rain, is not toxic, but at the same time it allows you to temporarily scare off the wasps and retains its effect for several days or even weeks.
You can also treat the grapes with Tivit Jet, Kinmix and some others similar to them, but after harvesting it will be necessary to thoroughly wash all the clusters of chemicals.
Also helps to scare off the wasps from the grapes liquid smoke, which is usually used in domestic smokehouses, - they process the soil under the bushes. Smell of smoke, as a rule, frightens off wasps, however, as practice shows, the effectiveness of this tool is still very limited, and even after its application some of the grapes are still damaged.