The apiary is the place where the wasps are among the most harmful insects. And if their presence in the cottage or vegetable garden can still be forgiven (after all, these winged predators destroy a large number of plant pests a day), then in the apiary, destroying bees, they cause only damage, and significant. That is why the fight with the wasps in the apiary is often very relevant.
About how it is possible to save bees from wasps, we will continue to talk ...
How dangerous is the wasp for the apiary?
In order to effectively protect bees from wasps, the beekeeper needs, as they say, "to know the enemy in person." For example, the most dangerous for bees are several varieties of wasps:
- Hornets - absolutely everything, without exception. And if the domestic species of these large oas attack bees at a distance distant from their hives, the huge tropical hornets, fly into the apiary with whole detachments and are capable of destroying the many thousands of honey bees in just a few hours. A group of 40-50 giant hornets destroys an average bee family of 30-40 thousand individuals in about 3 hours.
- The philanthropist, called still a bee-wolf, is a single wasp of medium size, stocking bees in burrows for the subsequent feeding of their larvae. To develop one larva, 5-6 bees are required. During the season, one female philanthropist thus destroys several dozen bees.
Besides, ordinary paper wasps like to sometimes catch a bee, but this is given to them much more difficultly - they are not "professional" hunters for bees, and they extract mainly injured and weakened insects. However, if the wasps in search of honey will visit the hive, they can seriously damage and empty the honeycomb of a weakened family, which in the end can lead to its death.
At the same time, with the right approach, it is almost always possible to save bees from wasps. And if you realize such protection ahead of time, even before the beginning of the robbery attacks on apiaries, you can completely avoid losses, and even for the whole summer you will never see a sad picture of how the wasps kill bees.
(The video, posted at the end of the article, clearly shows how the wasps against the bees can operate in an organized and methodical manner, attacking the beehive).
We protect the apiary ahead of time: what needs to be done in the spring?
In the spring, when the life of the bee family is only entering the active phase, it is necessary to take measures to protect the beehive from attacks of wasps: these protective measures must be comprehensive and well thought out to the last detail.
First, you should choose the right location for the apiary. Ideally, the terrain for this should be with dense chernozem soils, a dense grassy cover, the absence of ravines, mounds and wastelands with sandy or clay bald patches (it is in such areas that female philosophers arrange burrows and carry bees caught here).
If small sandy areas near the apiary are still available, it is useful to plow them even in the cold season, in order to reduce the number of philanthropists emerging in the spring from burrows to the surface of the earth. Sometimes it helps to save a huge number of bees, because in the spring "bee wolves" simply will not be released.
Secondly, it is useful to hang traps for wasps and hornets made of simple plastic bottles on the already located apiary around the perimeter of the territory. It is not difficult to make such traps, but they protect the bees quite well.
To make a trap, you need a conventional plastic bottle: the upper third is cut off, the bait is poured into the bottom of the bottle, and the separated tip is turned upside down and inserted inside the bottom of the bottle. The wasps attracted by the bait are trapped through the neck, but they can not get out.
As baits in traps you can use jam (preferably fermented or sour), beer, kvass, braga. The more such traps will be placed on the apiary, the more bees will be saved.
In addition, in the spring it is useful to pay attention to the emerging wasps and trace their movements: sometimes you can even find a hornet's nest in a dense bush and destroy it in a timely manner.
If the wasps are already robbing: the methods of their destruction
If the wasps discovered the apiary, and the beekeeper noticed their attacks on the bees, then it is necessary to take additional measures urgently to combat the attacking predators.
Additionally, bees can be protected by different methods:
- More carefully search for aspen nests near the apiary.
- Use special glue traps (located, for example, on the hive lid) to protect the hive from the wasps. At the center of such glue traps is laid a sweet fermented bait. Wasps in the first place will fly to this "dessert", and then simply will not be able to start hunting for bees, since they will stick together. For example, thanks to such traps, it is possible to catch most of the hornets even before they begin to rob.
When choosing a bait, it is necessary to remember that bees can also fly to sweet foods. That is why - to minimize the number of attracted bees - the bait must necessarily be fermented.
- Manually catch and destroy the philanthropists (usually there are not so many in the territory). Many beekeepers, seeing the flying philanthropist, certainly try to destroy it - for example, they beat it with a special clapper made of a fine mesh net. Regular and purposeful catching of philanthropists allows to protect bees from these wasps quite reliably.
It is interesting
The bites of philanthropists are relatively painless and usually do not cause severe inflammation. Experienced, "sighted" beekeepers often simply catch them with their bare hands - they are unable to pierce the stung skin on their palms with a sting.
In addition, as noted above, traps made from bottles are very helpful in beekeeping for combating wasps. If in the spring they are hung more for prevention, then with a massive appearance of wasps in the apiary, the number of traps should be increased - the more they are, the more reliable it will be to protect the apiary.
Sometimes a day in a two-liter bottle can come across hundreds of wasps and higher.
How to find and destroy a hornet's nest?
Finding an aspen nest in the forest or in the conditions of a rough steppe region is a rather difficult task. Well, if it is located right next to the apiary, and the beekeeper has the ability to detect it without additional funds. More often, the nest of wasps is located at a great distance, sometimes in inaccessible hollows or holes in the ground, and it is very difficult to find it without additional tweaks.
An effective method of searching for aspen nests is to label insects. For this, the insect is caught by a net, on its "waist" a light and long red ribbon is gently tied, after which the wasp is released. Usually within half an hour she returns to her nest, and thanks to a noticeable ribbon, it will be easy to follow. In this way it is easy to identify even intractable aspen nests in tall trees.
Homes of wasps are destroyed in different ways. First, the nest can be burned by dousing it with gasoline or kerosene. However, if you decide to fight with wasps in this way, then you must strictly follow the relevant fire safety rules. Always keep in mind that not only the nest itself can catch fire, but also objects located next to it - for example, a tree branch or the roof of a farm building.
Secondly, the nest can be filled with water - for example, when it is located in a burrow (note that sometimes it can take several buckets of water). After the burrow is flooded, the entrance to it should be closed with a suitable stone to prevent the wasps from getting out.
Thirdly, the nest can be wrapped in a package in which a powerful insecticide is pre-poured. If the nest is located in a hollow, then the insecticide is simply poured into it, and the entrance to the hollow is clogged with a gag from the fabric impregnated with the same drug.
As a poisonous drug, you can choose as somewhat old-fashioned means - Aktaru, Chlorophos, Carbofos, Chlorpyrifos, and more modern, less dangerous for humans, but very effective against ozone - Delta Zone, Get, Lambda Zone, Xulat Micro, etc.
Destroy the nest preferably at night, dressing so that the whole body was covered with dense clothing, and to protect the head use a mask of the beekeeper.
Despite the variety of options for combating wasps, perhaps the most reliable way to protect them from bees is to take care of the hives and to prevent the emergence of weak families. A strong bee family is quite capable of standing up for itself: the wasps against the bees protecting the hive by the whole family will simply not be able to do anything. Even hornets - and those are able to penetrate the hive only in exceptional cases.
On a note
Under natural conditions, hornets can not destroy a family of bees. On most of the territory of our country there are hornets of relatively small size, capable of catching only single bees. And in places where huge hornets live, local bees have a unique mechanism of protection against them, called "heat ball" (bees massively coat hornet, creating a deadly temperature for him in the center of such a tangle). Tragedy in apiaries happens when European bees, more efficient in collecting honey, but do not have such protection as unnecessary, are transported to Japan. There - if huge wasps attacked the beehive - it is more likely that the honey family will be completely destroyed.
Below, the video shows how the wasps attack bees - to stand against such an attack, even in thousands of bee colonies, there is practically no chance ...