Lice - parasites are quite vulnerable and inactive. They can not travel long distances, they do not have wings. And they multiply not very fast - each female for her life can give life to a few dozen offspring. But, nevertheless, the effectiveness of the spread and transmission between people lice are ready to plug into the belt of many other human parasites.
The way lice are transmitted have become actively studied even in the case of mass epidemics of the diseases they carry - typhus and helminthiases. And it turned out that head lice are transmitted easily, from a biological point of view - effectively, and without any expressed frills, simply creeping from one person to another, or being forcibly transferred.
Separate details of how lice spread are necessary to know, in order to protect themselves and their children from these parasites.
Methods of spreading head lice
The spreading of lice occurs always in the places where people live, and especially often when the settlement is compacted. Head and louse lice are especially quickly distributed in communal apartments, barracks, refugee camps. In the war years, parasites pestered soldiers in barracks and trenches - in places of dense crowds of people lice feel completely at ease.
It is interesting
Lice-borne epidemic typhus is even called a "trench fever," as he mowed soldiers during the Crimean campaign, the Napoleonic wars, and during the First World War in the trenches on the battlefield. In conditions of unsanitary conditions, lice spread among the soldiers very quickly and infect almost everyone.
Lice are transmitted from person to person in several ways:
- crawl from the head of one person to another. Most often this happens in those who share one bed, as well as between children in joint games. This is the main way to transmit lice.
- Head lice can be carried through items of hygiene and everyday use - combs, towels, hair bands, hoops, and from there they get on the head of another person when using these things together. This method is relatively rare, but can take place.
- Lice also spread through general clothing. For head lice, hats, scarves and hooded jackets are most relevant, and the louse can be passed through any clothing on which nits, nymphs and adult insects are located.
- In very rare cases, parasites fall on bed linens and pillows, and from there they climb onto the head of another person who lies on the same bed.
It is important to understand that lice carriers are all people with any number of these insects on their heads. However, the more a specific person is infected with lice, the more likely that they will fall from his head to furniture or household items, and hence the risk of infection from him.
Lice can be transmitted on water in places of public bathing. It is known that in India in poor areas lice are carried right in rivers, on the banks of which children, adults, and old people bathe. The most common are pubic lice, but head lice can also spread in the same way: scientists know their high resistance to hypoxia and the ability to survive in water for up to two days.
Nits ( louse eggs ) because of the inability to move are transmitted only by the forces of the person himself. This can be the use of common combs, on which remain hair with attached eggs, towels, general clothing or bed, on which the infected hair remains.
In general, nits are rarely transmitted and are not the main infectious agents. In other words, in quantities that are capable of causing epidemics and infecting a large number of people, nits are not transmitted.
Are lice jumping?
Lice do not jump: their legs are well adapted only to grasp the hair and securely rest on it, but there are no mechanisms for jumping in lice. In addition, lice have a fairly massive body, little adapted for active movements.
Therefore, lice do not jump, but only crawl. Due to the fact that lice do not know how to jump, they are not transmitted between people at a distance, and you can communicate with an infected person quite calmly. Of the typical bloodsucking insect parasites in an apartment that can jump, you can only meet fleas.
"From the kindergarten the child came and said that there would not be any more, because the girl from the group had lice and said that the lice jumped from head to head, and every child could become infected. We understand that lice spread a little differently, but if in a kindergarten one child has lice, then everyone else will, even though they do not know how to jump. "
Nevertheless, lice crawl fast enough and actively, and even with a short-term close contact (for example, with a kiss) are fully able to have time to get over the head of a healthy person.
Debunking myths, or how lice are not transmitted
There are a lot of myths about lice, and some of them are so strong universal stereotypes that their refutation causes real bewilderment.
Myth 1. Lice are jumping.
This was said earlier. Jumping lice can not and head on the head does not jump.
Myth 2. Lice are transmitted in dirty apartments at a distance of
Lice can not be transmitted at a distance. And in itself, the sanitary condition of the premises can only indirectly affect their transfer (after all, such apartments often do not follow the basic rules of personal hygiene).
Myth 3. Head lice are transmitted only from children
Absolutely unreasonable statement - head lice equally actively infect and pass on both children and adults.
Myth 4. Lice are transmitted only with sexual intercourse
During sexual intercourse, pubic lice are transmitted. Head parasites can be transmitted both during sexual intercourse and simply with close physical contact - hugs, engaging in struggle, mother's care for the child.
Myth 5. Lice transmitted from pets
This misconception is so common that it is necessary to say about lice in domestic animals separately.
Do lice come from animals to humans?
Neither the so-called canine, nor the cat's lice are transmitted to man. This is due to the peculiarities of lice and geese in general - each species of these parasites is strictly specific to its owner and can not live and inhabit other kinds of animals.
On cats dwell cat lice, on dogs - dog, and in their everyday life they are called lice only for the similarity of appearance with human lice. But here, getting on the body of an animal of a different species, including a human, these insects quickly perish.
Lice in dogs are not transmitted to humans even with close contact, when, for example, the animal sleeps with a person on the bed. By the way, lice in cats and dogs are not transmitted not only to a person, but also to these species from one to another - that is, a cat lice can not live on dogs, and canine can not live on cats.
Some features of the transmission of lice
There are also some details in the transmission of lice, which may seem unusual and even curious.
For example, it was statistically confirmed that head lice more actively infect nervous people, prone to worry and anxiety. It is believed that nervous people are more active blood pulsating, and they sweat more often, because of what the smell of their body is more attractive to parasites.
In addition, during sexual intercourse it is possible to transfer two types of lice head and pubic. This double infestation is one of the most unpleasant consequences of a disordered sexual life.
In any case, for reliable protection against lice, remember all the ways of their transmission and avoid:
- close contacts with unknown people or those who have obvious signs of infection with lice
- use of other people's hygiene products
- Bathing in places with a lot of marginal social elements.
And if suddenly in a kindergarten a case of infection with lice of one of the children was revealed, it is better to keep your child at home for a week or two. This will save the parents from serious trouble.
Getting rid of lice and nits at home for 1 procedure: