Their hordes do not give the person peace, from them in the house walls move, it they swarm in all corners. Something similar with a certain amount of dislike and fear people say about cockroaches, long living with them side by side. Imaginative expressions help to clearly imagine how the cockroaches reproduce, ignoring the master's persistent attempts to get rid of them and showing incredible fertility.
The mad speed of increasing the number of individuals, the ability to emerge like a bolt from the blue, their invulnerability to the impact of many poisons and even radiation are amazing, terrifying and becoming an excuse for anecdotes.
"Redhead and Mustache" can boast that it is the main character of many literary works, however, most often negative.
The history of human hatred for cockroaches
When it comes to not the most pleasant representatives of the type of Arthropods, sensitive people shrill their shoulders with disgust. Those whose apartments do not threaten the reproduction of cockroaches will turn away indifferently. And only a few can tell with delight for hours about the gracefulness of insects. One could admire the extraordinary agility of these special specimens from the fauna, if not for the historically developed hostility between Homo sapiens and cockroaches.
Scientists argue that the ancestors of cockroaches existed already in the era of the Paleozoic era and successfully transferred all the global changes on Earth. They preferred the climate of the tropical forests. It was there that the ideal conditions for cockroach kittens, lovers of warmth and moisture developed.
The man has learned to build houses, providing all-season comfort to himself and the smaller brothers - cockroaches. Insects have chosen buildings, there is always food and protection from natural disasters. They willingly occupied a niche next to a person, turning into Sinanthropus, which greatly increased their ability to bring offspring.
Shy, fussy creatures imprinted in photographs are not very attractive, and when cockroaches begin to multiply actively, it becomes unbearable. In the old days, it never occurred to anyone to fight cockroaches, they had to endure. The presence of such spongers in the hut was considered a sign of prosperity. Where the owners are poor, and cockroaches have nothing to eat.
The Russian Emperor Peter I was strongly disliked by such uninvited guests, and at the same time to the owners who allowed the reproduction of insects in their hut.
Insignificant, at first glance, creatures play a certain role in the life of human society. In previous centuries, hardly anyone could boast of a complete lack of bugs in the house.
One well-known baker, escaping from the governor's righteous anger, gave out a cockroach baked in a roll for raisins. The insects in his kitchen grew bolder enough that, mastering the nooks in a master's way, they got into the vat with the dough. So, because of the cockroach curiosity, banal uncleanliness and resourcefulness of the baker, buns with raisins appeared.
The better people settled their homes, the more eagerly they roamed their cockroaches, the number of populations grew rapidly, but humanity became irreconcilable. Many-storeyed construction is accepted by insects on hurray. Water supply is the greatest achievement of civilization. Leaking pipes, radiators of heating - simply paradise for the cockroaches accustomed to heat and dampness.
And even the careless attitude of people to products of cockroaches for a long time was appreciated. And no matter how many javelins the responsible tenants break, defending their rights to the living space in struggle with pathetic little goats, who want to profit at someone else's expense will always be found.
Having such cohabitants is a dubious pleasure, but it's not so bad. Breeding cockroaches encroach on shoes, books and holy-saints - household appliances, and such "citizens" in court will not drag. From time to time, researchers find new shortcomings in the crawling brotherhood, declaring her the culprit of the development of bronchial asthma and the carrier of the causative agents of a number of unpleasant diseases. The above leads to the final rupture of the already strained relations of man with cockroaches.
Reproduction of cockroaches
House cockroaches , like typical representatives of their class, are sexually reproduced. A specialist will easily distinguish a male from a female. Genuine interest in the breeding of these animals and their sexual characteristics, show biologists and terraumists, enthusiastic exotic. The poor fellow, unwillingly become the owner of the cockroach army, does not run after them with a magnifying glass, wishing to determine what sex the individuals multiplied on its territory.
For the suborder of cockroaches is characterized by a huge species diversity. The majority of species, most familiar to Russians, have the following features:
- the male is slightly smaller than the female.
- In a sexually mature male, it is possible to detect characteristic outgrowths on the last segment, the grubs.
- The males have slightly better developed wings, and in exceptional cases they can carry out small flights.
Female cockroaches are capable of slightly waving their wings, inviting to mating, - the initial stage of the process of reproduction. Males for this are ready for feats: some are able to take off a little, Madagascar hissing cockroaches publish menacing sounds and butt "horns". They organize real battles, proving their rights to the female.
After fertilization, the female lays eggs. As a rule, they have a protective capsule - edema.
Changes that occur in the structure of insects during life are called metamorphosis. Cockroaches have an incomplete type of transformation: larvae emerge from eggs, they undergo several lines, each subsequent larva increasingly resembles an adult, an adult.
For all life the female repeatedly carries out laying of eggs. There is also an interesting feature, after pairing, the gametes of the male are retained for a long time in the body of the female, repeated clutches occur even without previous copulation.
The majority of insects living in the dwelling are larvae that have not reached puberty.
From living together with people, insects have won a lot. Houses and apartments are reliably protected from unfavorable weather conditions, households generously provide provisions, which allows cockroaches to multiply very quickly and comfortably exist.
The ubiquitous red cockroach
Let me introduce you, a popular runner in modern Russian cuisines - a red cockroach , so named because of the coloring. Blattella germanica - so call it zoologists. He also has a lot of nicknames. One of them, the cockroach, reflects the history of the adventures of this annoying animal. It is believed that they brought to Russia his, an African by birth, in his knapsacks and greatcoats, soldiers returning home after the war with Prussia.
The Germans, on the contrary, are convinced that the cockroach came to Europe from Russia, and in Western Germany it is called French. He visited everywhere. He managed to defeat the black cockroach in competition, because he quickly reaches puberty, more fruitful and takes longer care of his offspring, and from time to time eats eggs of a black cockroach, often abandoned to the mercy of fate.
Female cockroach everywhere has a swelling of itself and leaves it only by the time when the larvae are fully ripe and ready to leave.
The development of a cockroach from the egg to the stage of the adult takes about four months. At a sufficiently high ambient temperature, it is ready to mate after 3 months.
During the period of maturity, which lasts up to 30 weeks, one individual is able to give life, at least, a hundred children. Reproduction of the ubiquitous red cockroaches is limited only by the lack of water and food.
Where have the cockroaches gone and will they die like dinosaurs?
In the last decade, and maybe a little more, residents of apartment buildings were amazed at the lack of cockroaches on their kitchens, eternal dependents. Did chemistry really work? Or at the same time all the neighbors became extremely clean, ceased to leak the taps, and all the cockroaches fled in search of food and drink? It is unlikely.
The scientists were alarmed by their sudden disappearance. Versions are put forward by one more incredibly different. Someone argues that in our apartments appeared too many tasteless, according to insects, things. They did not fit the genetically modified products, mysterious dyes and preservatives, to which people have already got used.
They did not like the smell of linoleum, the lack of old books with glued pages in the closets. They were killed by cellular communication or the destroyed ozone layer, and they fell victim to civilization.
They suffered the fate of dinosaurs? Hardly. Cockroaches have repeatedly proved their ability to adapt to the most unfavorable conditions. If they can withstand ionizing radiation, can high-frequency radio waves harm them? The Prusak manages without food for up to 20 days, surely he would not endure temporary difficulties.
Do not harbor the hope that the two-legged came out victorious in the battle with the cockroaches. There is no doubt that they will return to our homes. They will reconcile with the altered human diet, try synthetic toothpads on the tooth, damage the plastic. And with these individuals who survived in the struggle for existence, it will be more difficult to manage. They may have become stronger, more cunning, more agile.
So ahead of us is surely waiting for a new stage of the battle with cockroaches, the fight against their mass reproduction in our territory.