Site about the fight against domestic insects

Bed bugs

Постельные клопы

Bedbugs are quite unique insects. From other congeners of the order of the half-wings, the bed bug is well distinguished by the absence of wings, and from the remaining insects settling in human habitation - their parasitic way of life.

If cockroaches, ants and moth harm a person by spoiling food supplies and clothing, bed bugs infringe directly on the most expensive and sensitive - the human body. That is why the activity of these parasites is very clearly felt by residents of apartments, houses and cottages almost immediately after insects infiltrate the room - bed bugs leave obvious, numerous and unpleasant traces of bites on the skin. And these bites make bedbugs the most unpleasant companions of man.

Bedbugs and their bites: are they dangerous?

If you abstract yourself from the unpleasant sensations from bites of bed bugs, you can talk about the epidemiological harmlessness of these insects in general: today there has not been a single case where a bed bug infects a person with a bacterial or viral infection.

Despite the fact that bed bugs - especially in natural populations - are carriers of pathogens of many diseases, none of these viruses and microorganisms are transmitted by the bite.

It is interesting:

In the course of special studies, scientists found in the body of bed bugs several dozen pathogens of various dangerous to humans diseases. Including typhus, brucellosis, anthrax, leishmaniasis, plague, tularemia, Ku fever and others.

However, surprisingly scientists themselves, these pathogens were found only in the excrement of bedbugs and in their internal organs. And none of them was transmitted by the bite. Evolutionally, this is very beneficial for parasites: the less risk the host is exposed to, the greater the chances of keeping the main food source in bedbugs.

Nevertheless, the bite of a bed bug can be fraught with certain troubles.

  • Allergic reaction to bite. According to statistics, an allergy to bug bites in various manifestations is observed in 80% of people. Such manifestations can be the appearance of papules, extensive redness, itching and pain, extremely rarely - even anaphylactic shock.
  • Inflammation, damage to the skin, pustules, which occur when combing places of bites. Through such micro-sarcas, pathogenic organisms are easier to penetrate into the human body.
  • Iron deficiency anemia in children. This is a very rare consequence of bites of bed bugs. It occurs with a very large number of simultaneously biting parasites, when the amount of blood sucked by them is significant, and the action of their saliva leads to some changes in the composition of the blood.

According to statistics, 70% of the victims of bed bugs do not feel their bites. It is because of this that parasites actively occupy cities: in many apartments people do not even suspect that at night they suck the blood of insects.

The bites of bed bugs themselves quite characteristic look: they are arranged along the line in four to five red dots. Of all the bloodsucking insects bugs are the only ones that suck blood consistently from several wounds for saturation.

Укусы постельных клопов

Клопы покусали ногу

But not only on this basis, bugs can be calculated: their appearance is also quite specific.

What does a bed bug look like and how does it differ from other insects in the apartment?

The bed bug has a flat, wide body. Being hungry, it generally becomes almost round when viewed from above. At the same time, because of the absence of wings on his body, always noticeable constrictions at the place of joints of segments of the abdomen.

Adult bed bugs have a uniform brown color. If a particular insect is hungry, it can be light, almost red. After saturation with blood, the bed bug darkens, sometimes - almost completely black.

Голодный и напившийся крови клоп

In addition, the body of a full-bodied bed bug is lengthened and increases in thickness due to the filling of the stomach with blood. Such a bug becomes like a wingless larva of a cockroach. The body size of the bed bug varies from 4 to 8 mm, and there is practically no difference in size between males and females.

The flat bed bug body shape well protects it from crushing a person tossing and turning on the bed. However, after drinking blood, the bug becomes more vulnerable. It is the crushed, well-fed bugs that leave ugly brown spots on the bed, which are often the first sign that the parasites are in the room.

To the note: regardless of age, the bed bug consumes, during one feeding, a mass of blood that is twice the mass of its body. It is not surprising that larvae of bedbugs grow at an incredible rate, and adult females can lay off fairly large eggs almost every day.

Larvae of bed bugs seem to resemble adult insects, but are smaller and lighter in color. The larvae of the earliest ages, being hungry, are generally transparent, and after they are saturated they can clearly see a droplet of blood in the stomach.

Личинка постельного клопа пьет кровь

Eggs of bedbugs are similar to strongly reduced rice seeds. They have the same white color, elongated shape and a length of not more than a millimeter.

Klopov is easy to distinguish from other domestic insects:

  • Difference from cockroaches. The cockroaches on the back of the abdomen have two characteristic processes, similar to short antennae. Bedbugs do not have such outgrowths. In addition, adult cockroaches are larger than bedbugs and have wings and a more elongated abdomen.
  • Difference from ticks. Purely externally the bugs are more or less similar to ticks. Here, for the difference, it is enough to count the legs of the parasite. In bedbugs, like all insects, they have 6, in mites, as representatives of a group of arachnids - 8.
  • Difference from ants - the shape of the body of ants is very well known: these insects are slender and have a waist in the waist area. In bedbugs, even the larvae are wide and do not have such constrictions.

With fleas and lice bugs it is almost impossible to confuse because of their size: if the first is very difficult to see with the naked eye, then bed bugs are well-marked insects.

But here's a way of life, they lead such that as little as possible come across the eyes of their victims.

The lifestyle of bed bugs: where they settle and when they are active

Bed bugs are highly nocturnal insects. To make them move by day can only destroy the place of their accumulation or the action of some strong drug.

The most active bugs in the pre-wee hours, from 3 to 6 o'clock in the morning. This is the time that accounts for the greatest number of bites. Due to their mobility and high running speed, bedbugs can in minutes from any corner of the apartment to the bed, spend 20-25 minutes on the food itself and quickly get into the shelter.

In those places where bedbugs wait for the day, the females lay eggs.

Кладки яиц клопа

Over time, large concentrations of parasites are formed in the most suitable shelter for insects, which are called nests, although there is no structure or system in such settlements.

Bed bugs feed once every 5-10 days. On days when a full-bodied insect digests food, it is in shelter and does not come to your eyes. That is why in places of clusters it is possible to find much more individuals than on a bed or in a room at night.

Bed bug is very prolific. Each female lays more than 300 eggs for its life, approximately 4-5 every day.

Яйца постельного клопа

Bug larvae are excreted from eggs on day 5-6 and after 4-5 weeks are converted into adult parasites.

Молодые личинки клопа

During this time, they moult several times, and the remaining chitinous shells after moulting can serve as a good sign of the presence of bed bugs in the house.

Methods to combat bed bugs

Since the bed bug accompanied a person throughout the history of civilization, against these parasites, many ways of fighting were developed, from conspiracies to powerful chemical insecticides.

Bed bugs have several features of biology, which determine the specifics of the fight against them:

  • Bugs are sensitive to the temperature of the air in the room. Normally they feel in a range of temperatures from +10 to +30 ° С. At a temperature of more than 50 ° C, bedbugs and their eggs die instantly, at temperatures below + 5 ° C, insects fall into a state resembling anabiosis.

When the temperature in the room drops to 10-15 ° C, the larval development of bed bugs to adult individuals is extended to three months. But the total life of each individual also increases. But eggs of bedbugs at this temperature cease to develop at all.

  • Bed bugs quickly develop resistance to various chemical insecticides. That is why manufacturers of chemical means to combat bugs have to constantly improve their products: every few months in one or another place in the world there is a population of bugs, resistant to the next drug.
  • Bed bugs quickly migrate and spread between the rooms. Therefore, getting rid of one apartment in an infected house does not guarantee that in a month or two the parasites will not move from neighbors to it.

Given these features of bed bugs, today the most commonly used methods are the following:

  • the destruction of bed bugs with chemical insecticides. This method is considered to be most effective in the use of modern tested drugs. Most of these drugs are harmless to humans and pets, and proper use of them can help get rid of bed bugs in one day.
  • Fighting bugs with temperature methods is very effective, but also quite technically complex. For reliable disposal of the room from bedbugs, powerful industrial hair dryers or heat generators are used, or the room is freezed at low ambient air temperature on the street.
  • Physical methods of struggle, consisting in using a vacuum cleaner or a sneaker. Special effect is not given.

Today, the possibilities of biological control of bed bugs are also being studied. There are known superparasites, which lay their eggs in the bodies of bed bug larvae. Later on, the larvae of such an insect are destroyed either by a nymph of a bedbug, or by an adult insect.

Moreover, more recently, a mold was discovered that affects the settlements of bedbugs and leads to their death. However, the practical application of such methods of struggle is only being developed.

You can deal with bed bugs yourself, or you can call for special sanitary services.

Дезинсектор обрабатывает квартиру от клопов

Independent struggle will cost less, but it will require serious work and, perhaps, more time.

The call of the same services of pest control is most justified when a large number of neighboring apartments in a house are infected with bugs and treatment must be carried out quickly and at a time in all premises.

Means for getting rid of bugs

Disposal of the premises from bedbugs includes a large number of methods. For example, in addition to insecticides and temperature treatment, it is possible to use some folk recipes.

So, vinegar, denatured alcohol, fresh wormwood and tansy have a strong enough deterrent effect on bedbugs. All these means do not destroy bedbugs, but help to scare them off before infecting the premises or to prevent the penetration of bugs into the apartment from neighbors.

Famous insecticide crayons and pencils continue to remain more or less effective in controlling bugs. For example, Mashenka's remedy consists of two rather strong insecticides, to which bugs have not yet developed resistance. Therefore, the correct use of such chalk provides protection of the apartment from bedbugs, and their destruction in the already infected (but only with a very small number of parasites in the apartment).

Современное средство от клопов без запаха Дельта Зона

But the actively advertised today ultrasonic scarers on bugs do not work. Bed bugs have no instinct for avoiding high sounds, and therefore, even if they are directly in the area of ​​action of such a device, the bug does not change its behavior in any way.

It is important to understand that because of the ability to quickly resettle the fight against bed bugs in one apartment of an apartment building is meaningless. In such buildings, the campaign against bed bugs should be carried out jointly and in concert with the neighbors.

To record "Bedbugs" left 75 comments.
  1. Nikolay :

    Briefly, but very much is told about insects.

  2. Irina :

    That's from the neighbors to me, it seems, and ran these parasites. Until they are bred, we must take action as soon as possible. And together with the neighbor together declare war on them. Otherwise, we will be eaten ... Thanks for the information in the article! Very informative!

  3. Alexander :

    Thanks for the clear comments.

  4. Sergey :

    Thank you so much! Very informative article. I took off the apartment, red spots appeared on the body with signs of itching. I thought an allergy to a new powder. It turns out in vain for him to sin. Everything is much more serious. Today I saw these parasites with my own eyes in bed. At once it is useful to learn about them in the World Wide Web. On your site in great detail all learned about this infection. Tomorrow I'll give battle to these creatures ...

  5. Vasily :

    And where can you buy this drug?

    • Tatiana :

      Help get rid of bed bugs, what is an effective drug?

      • Anonymous :

        We had, we every weekend independently poisoned them, eventually waited for that they threw out all the sofas and armchairs. They ripped off the wallpaper, moved the cabinets and broke the wooden partitions, then called the service to combat bugs. At night, every hour we got up and also mechanically killed them. After the specialists treated us 2 times with the apartment, we still bought GET and they themselves were mortgaged. We fought for 8 months and finally won them.

      • Gocha :


    • Anonymous :

      Where is Get sold, please tell me?

  6. Anonymous :

    And what about the pets? I'll put a stink of a pesticide, but a cat and a dog?

  7. Lyudmila :

    For my 44 years I ran into the first time when I moved to a small family. I live in the north, they brought me from Moscow, it was Mashenka's pencil. Little hoped that surprising - helps. But the small family is the same hostel, before they were not at all, after a small earthquake they appeared. Maybe it's just a coincidence.

  8. Hope :

    I saved the whole house from bugs and cockroaches with white powder, odorless, REOPAN. It was in the 80's, but since then in the whole house no insects have been wound up. HAD sprinkled 1 time only in my apartment, and disappeared in the whole house. And then a lot of my acquaintances used it, and all the insects disappeared in the house. At home pets did not work.

  9. Fedya :

    I, too, ran into this trouble. Only at me all is more difficult. My parents are recumbent, and I can not afford to call a special company for the destruction of bedbugs, since they poison with gas. Therefore, I fight with them on my own, but I can not bring it to the end.

  10. Mars :

    In the beginning I thought too the allergy because of coffee)) And then there were tramps on the wallpaper in the mattress. I hope to exterminate all, summoning the "gas" guys. Good luck and no bedbugs!

  11. Yuri :

    1. Bed bugs are a world problem! The Internet buzzes from the most diverse information on this topic. The abundance of this topic is outrageous, in fact it is a world conspiracy. The task is to create a constant consumer of stupid expensive chemical and technical means of fighting these insects and to live on their own.
    2. On Earth, all are sick and no one is protected from disease. It's strange, but only bed bugs are ideal.
    3. So what can these bugs hurt and what can they infect? The Internet is not something to answer, does not even understand these issues.
    4. Where are the specialists of this profile, their voice and suggestions? This is intentionally not.

  12. Sergey :

    An excellent remedy against all insects is fenthion. The code was being repaired, then the gauze was moistened with a solution of fenthion and laid under the plinth: 10 years before the next repair, nothing crawled into the apartment. The same tool got rid of at work.

  13. Inna :

    Hello. I have a question: if someone has dealt with bed bugs, do they have a strange smell?

  14. Alina :

    Oh, God forbid anyone this. How did the guy and I rent an apartment. Living there for a month, we found red spots on our hands. After that we saw an insect. I never knew about these creatures. And in the end, I started a panic that I just slept with the light on at night. In the end, we bought a tool and decided to help ourselves. After that, we rented another apartment. I carried some of my things to my parents. And what do you think - these creatures were, where we rented a new apartment and even my parents. In the end, called Special people. They all sprinkled. It was a horror of some kind.

  15. Natalia :

    And we turned to the service for the destruction of bedbugs, we were helped, we advise.

  16. Eugene :

    And where you can buy at least one of the means, tell me?

  17. Herman :

    Ordered the service, a guy came, he had an IP. Treated the apartment, in the end nothing helped. The phone does not answer. The apartment is almost empty. As a result, you will have to order another service. Pay attention to the contract and the company!

  18. Natasha :

    And I treated with dichlorvos. It will help, no?

    • Anonymous :

      Dichlorvos will not help. All sorts of chemicals help, but as the adaptation is said to be very fast + eggs have biological protection. If you poison yourself, once a week. Incubation is approximately 3-4 weeks. But not the fact that it will help. The best tool is cold treatment -25, then heat +50, then slip all lye and seams with a special solution, including furniture. But, unfortunately, in Russia such specialists have not yet seen.

  19. Vasya :

    Intavir, tablets, 15 rubles. One, but a big one, was enough.

    • Akniet :

      It helped you, tell me, please. I have a newborn baby, I'm very scared.

  20. Anonymous :

    With an iron iron the bed, with the steam.

  21. Eliza :

    Horror, we also have. What to do - I do not know, help!

  22. Yulya :

    How to get rid of them? We smeared this pencil, Mashenka, and it did not help, although we were advised that it was an excellent remedy.

  23. Yulya :

    Also rented an apartment, and there is one bug, horror.

  24. Catherine :

    Guys, I remember back in childhood, my mother and I gathered beetles in the grass in the summer, so-called "soldiers" (they have such a red-black pattern on the back). And they scattered them in the apartment! A few days later there were no bedbugs, and "soldiers", by the way, is also a mystery, but it helped!

  25. Anonymous :

    I also 2 weeks thought that I had urticaria, and then drew attention to black specks on the sheet and mattress. Then it dawned on me, I found six parasites, I was looking for a remedy.

  26. Anonymous :

    Everything is terrible! Already a few months do not give a normal sleep. Tell me, please, how quickly and effectively they get rid of? Wallpaper tear necessarily? I just made repairs.

  27. Anonymous :

    Vinegar helps.

  28. Elena :

    It is difficult to etch bedbugs, but it is possible. All the products that are sold in aerosol packages to combat bugs and cockroaches are not effective. However, I can not say anything about the delta zone, I did not use it. You can etch off bedbugs with drugs designed to fight garden and garden pests, such as INTA-VIR, ISKRA, etc. Carefully process all the cracks, plinths, places of the alleged clumps of bedbugs. In addition, iron all bed linens, blankets, seams of pillows, if possible, through gauze, iron the seams and corners of upholstered furniture, iron the wallpaper if they move away from the wall. The result depends on the thoroughness of the treatment.

  29. Dmitry :

    Appeared recently, a month ago. My wife had numerous bites on his body, painful, bites on me did not express so, but were. I read everything in the internet, decided to fight with the help of DELTA-ZONE, so very powerful advertising. The result is zero. Just thrown away money. Now only sprays, the effect is good. Fighting against bedbugs is a long one. It's those parasites. Living, their mother!

  30. Ardak :

    Also recently discovered the guests in a mattress on a double bed. The picture is disgusting, I have never been bitten, but here is the feeling of itching all the time. They called a specialist, and I think this is not the end. Also worry about the fate of neighbors, and what to do with the mattress - just can not imagine. They only fled from dichlorvos.

  31. Lena :

    We have bugs in the apartment, we want to move. As for bed linen, clothes I worry: can bedbugs stay in clothes and in bed, as if in a new place did not appear, advise, please ...

    • Stasya :

      Yes, still as they can. Be sure to wash all things, iron with hot steam iron and immediately pack, so as not to climb.

  32. Lenusya :

    Bedbugs are simply horror! How to deal with them? Caused 5 times, everything was splashed. It's useless, I have no strength!

  33. Rose :

    Tell me, please, what tool removes itching?

    • Cimex L :

      Any antihistamine drug, it is better to start with simple (diazolin 0.1, or tavegil, suprastin).

  34. Natalia :

    The safest and most effective drug is Xulat C25. It is better, if the expert will process, but it is possible to buy through the Internet and to spray independently. We could not get out ourselves. They summoned, the woman came and in half an hour without destructions did everything.

  35. Ivan :

    Damn, horror!

  36. Olya :

    We tried everything to get them out, tried everything, eventually summoned a specialist, and the wallpaper was re-glued, and the wallpaper glue was added to the wallpaper.

  37. Sahro :

    At us from neighbors have passed. While I found it in bed. This is generally, the mind is not understandable. My mother is biting me too, I can not sleep at night. From itching, the most good tool - diazoline, tablets, helps. While I do not know what to do, I think, in bed, dsp change.

  38. Cimex L :

    Also there were bugs) Somewhere 2 years ago, and ate a long time. Thought that the allergy, the end of immunity, even beer stopped drinking, then saw the bugs, and I understood right away. Output itself: processing once a week, 4 times, almost all domestic insecticides from all chemical groups that were in the supermarket, in high doses. Has processed and acted in film for a day, the blessing itself I live.

    I wanted to pour a sofa with veterinary pyrethroids, in the summer there were somewhere in the apartment 25-30 + poisons, but they, in short, died. Even friends on the sofa with bugs posted - conducted experiments, two weeks later were! The main thing is to interrupt the development cycle, so that the female egg does not have time to postpone (multiple processing), and once stimulates them only.

    PS Dragged them from work, there is a shop for sewing shmotya in the neighborhood ... Generally, the guys are cunning, for months on a hunger, sometimes they dive from the ceiling, if they can not climb like that. In sekondy meet, in shmotye and bags easily travel with you. And most importantly, if you like bedbugs, not so bad with health, the blood is not bad. Yes, and cats can be sensitive to insecticides, especially to pyrethroids. Antidote - atropine sulfate.

  39. Anonymous :

    I sit, I read your comments, and for me from * ka bug creeps!

  40. Olga :

    Hello, comrades in misfortune! Another, so to speak, folk remedy - I have a sheet glued along the perimeter with adhesive tape from insects. Not the one that is in the form of a film, but in the form of cardboard plates with glue. Day three they are on it wonderful stick. Another week they just can not crawl onto the sheet. Then it is necessary to re-glue. But there should not be any gaps, and the sheet is wider, the better - so that neither the pillow, nor the blanket, nor the hand, nor the foot perimeter stick out. At least, you can protect children and yourself from bites.

    At this stage, I have found peace of mind, peace of mind and the ability to sleep at night. Perhaps I will starve them to death. They go into hibernation in the absence of food. But here is a live bait in stock.

  41. Andrew :

    The idea is super, you need to try.

  42. Sanya :

    Horror, people, here you have the smoldering. I have not touched yet, but I need to know.

  43. Camila :

    I'm tired of these parasites. And the relocation does not help, they are everywhere. I'm thinking of contacting the service of killing bugs.

  44. Daria :

    This is a nightmare, the other day moved to their parents' apartment, they have not lived there for a long time. I've been thinking about mosquitoes for two days! True, she suspected that the bites were strange. Husband, apparently, came across - all examined, not found. And when the arms were torn off the couch - I was horrified! There were about 20 of them! All already bloodshot. From 1 mm to 5. What was not. I can not imagine how to deduce, judging by the comments above - there is a long war of people and insects ...

  45. Catherine :

    I have not yet seen the insect specifically, but there is suspicion about their existence. Children in the pimples, and this is very annoying. I'm afraid very much.

  46. Nadia :

    At us too, this is horror! I do not know how to get rid of them. And the smell is, I can not ...

  47. Olga :

    I struggle with these creatures for the fourth month. Twice the experts were stained. Then itself two times processed. They still creep. Less, of course. There are no forces. What to do?

  48. Sultan :

    I got these bugbears kapets! Splashing sofas, cabinets with different preparations, there is no result. Recently, only DUST has been used. The powder is cheap, but the bugs became much less. And one more tip: do not rely only on different drugs, it's best to carefully examine everything. If you find this creature, then immediately kill!

  49. Ivan :

    Bedbugs are a PPC ...

  50. Olga :

    CARPHOBOS! Powder to grow as follows: 1 package (30 grams) per five-liter. Solution in the trigger from under the liquid for glass. And everything, everything, everything to process. All mattresses, folds, rags, cushions, cracks, gaps - sprinkle, sprinkle. Bedspreads, blankets to spray on all sides and into large packages for a week, then stretch (if there is a mode, then more than 60 degrees). Each crease when dry - under the iron with steam, carefully. Good luck!

  51. Klava :

    At the daughter on a demountable apartment too there were bedbugs. They washed all the clothes and bags in the cold, and then everything they could have been painted with paint, which dries for 3 days. In general, when we returned home, horror how many bedbugs have stuck and died from the smell of paint. It's horrible, it turns out, how many there were there. I advise everyone, their bugs are gone.

  52. Natalia :

    We have bugs in our apartment. Having studied the site and all the bugs, we immediately ordered the drug "Delta Zone" and were very disappointed. First, having spent time and money, and secondly, that after the application of the drug nothing has changed. All did according to the instructions! I personally caught the bedbugs in a jar and put the cotton wool soaked with Delta Zone concentrate there. Bedbugs on it ran and did not die. After three or four hours they were still alive. They were killed only after I had sprayed them with Clean House (aerosol).

  53. Damir :

    Yes, these creatures are very tenacious! Appeared a year after moving to a new apartment. I made a complete renovation from floor to ceiling, but the floors were lazy to change wooden, and I put plywood and linoleum. All the furniture is new. It started with the daughter's couch - they found one, and realized that the war should not be postponed. I bought Raptor, a balloon from bedbugs, dismantled the sofa and found an army there. All processed, all gathered in a package and on the street. We lived for a short time happily, somewhere about two weeks. I took some domestic, left the whole balloon on the sofa, closed the room for 5-6 hours, then ventilated the room for hour 2. I lived another month, wiping away the tears of happiness, but these people moved to my sofa and my wife and me it is huge and very complex in design. Yesterday I sorted it out and began to extinguish it manually, including the larvae. Now I think, than them again to wet. I realized that moving does not help, they like to travel with you!

  54. Nina :

    Helicopter liquid, everyone will die.

  55. Anya :

    This pipets full, I've been fighting with them for six months! The sofa dismantled - oddly enough, but I did not find a nest. Sprayed, crawled a little. Where they, bastards, hide and breed, I can not understand. "Clean house" - garbage, though praise it, did not help me. Powders are also crap. I splash with vinegar and some other chemistry, I'm waiting, when razlazyat, and press them. Still relatives advised Medilis the anti-clap (it was helped), the price is about 500 rubles, I wait for the salary. I can not sleep, wake up at 3 and catch them in bed. All good luck in the fight against these creatures!

  56. Kolya :

    Bedbugs eat what to do ?! The body buzzes, it is impossible to sleep. Three times the firm persecuted - and nothing. A day or two again running around, not afraid. Help, WHAT TO DO!

  57. Galina :

    Bedbugs are horror! I'm 40 years old and I first encountered them. I live in a communal apartment, someone brought them to us. They called a special service, but a week later, bites appeared on the body. I read on the Internet about the "executioner" - I liked the testimonials. Has bought or purchased, has processed, has passed or has taken place already 8 days: silence, bites are not present. I hope I won, but just in case, the service will still be called, they promised that the second time is free, but not earlier than 21 days later.

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