Like most parasitic insects, the bugs reproduce extremely quickly. This contributes to the high nutritional value and energy value of human blood - their only type of food, as well as the comfortable conditions in which they live, and the overall species fertility.
It's interesting: unlike cockroaches, bedbugs are indifferent to the sanitary conditions in the room in which they live. They with equal success populate both fashionable apartments, and student hostels, and country dwellings.
Reproduction of bed bugs is a process, literally full of specific features, and therefore to know how bugs multiply will not only be useful in fighting them, but it is simply interesting to every curious person.
A bit of biology: the reproduction of bedbugs under a microscope
The main feature that the reproduction of bed bugs attracts the interest of entomologists is the so-called traumatic insemination. In case of traumatic insemination, the fertilization of the female takes place not by mutual consent, as with the rest of the insects, but by some kind of force, when the male pierces the abdominal wall of the female with its sexual organ and inserts its own seed into the internal cavity.
For many millennia of evolution, it was precisely such a method of pairing that was quite brutal from the point of view of human representations, which proved to be the most preferable for domestic bedbugs. He guarantees that in case of prolonged fasting, which bugs often have to endure, some of the already half-formed eggs will be used by the insect's body for nutrition. Often this helps preserve whole populations of domestic bedbugs.
A female bed bug mates only once in a lifetime. This is enough for her to postpone the required number of eggs in the future: the seed products of the male will be stored in special organs and consumed as needed. Thanks to this, even one fertilized female can become the ancestor of a whole population of parasites in the apartment.
Males of bed bugs in their desire to reproduce are extremely illegible in choosing a sexual partner. In many cases, they attack other males, nymphs and even cockroaches. According to the results of the study conducted by entomologists, it was found that almost all insects in the population, regardless of gender and age, have abdominal injuries, that is, at least once in their life they were attacked by an adult male.
After fertilization, the female bed bug begins to lay 4-10 eggs a day. These eggs are very small - no more than 1 mm in length.
The female leaves them in those places where she spends the daylight hours. It is almost impossible to find egg bugs on the bed or just scattered around the apartment.
For normal and regular egg laying, the female needs to eat regularly - this is the main factor of effective reproduction. One normal meal is enough for her to put up to 20 eggs. In general, female bugs feed more often and more abundantly than males, and in their lives they manage to postpone 300 to 500 eggs each.
Optimum conditions for reproduction of bed bugs are achieved in urban apartments: high enough humidity, temperature within 20-30 ° C, absence of temperature changes, abundance of shelters and, of course, constant access to food.
Development of a bedbug from an egg to an adult insect
From the deposited egg, after about 3-4 days, a larva resembles an adult bug in miniature. Entomologists call such larvae nymphs, and in domestic bugs they differ from adult insects only in size and inability to reproduce.
The larva constantly grows and has to shed, because its chitinous membrane is not capable of stretching. During the development period, the nymph changes its cover 5 times. For normal moult, the insect must at least once completely fill the stomach with blood.
Under normal conditions, the nymphs molt every 6-7 days, and after a month or one and a half after leaving the egg they become adult insects.
As the temperature decreases, the larval development time increases. So, at a temperature below 20 ° C, the larva will turn into an adult bug only after three months, and at a temperature below 15 ° C it will generally go into hibernation.
The larva consumes less blood than an adult insect. However, because of the large number of immature individuals, the most troublesome people cause the most trouble: at night, during feeding, there are several dozen nymphs per adult bug on the human body.
Bug larvae do not know how to inject an anesthetic into the bite site. Accordingly, their bites are sensitive, and it is they who disturb people at night. The bites of adult bugs begin to itch only a few hours after feeding the parasite.
Wherever bed bugs live, their reproduction will occur constantly and regardless of the season. Therefore, if they penetrated into the premises, they will almost certainly be spawning in a quantity that calls for SES.
Reproduction of bedbugs in an apartment: where and how quickly it occurs
Bedbugs are very secretive insects. Most of the time they spend in secluded shelters - crevices, cracks, cavities under mattresses, under carpets and behind paintings, and between books. It's very difficult to meet a bug in the daytime. In the same places where bedbugs spend the daylight hours, and their reproduction occurs.
A large number of adult insects and larvae, laid eggs, skins of larvae and excrement of bedbugs form a so-called nest in which there is no structure and hierarchy, but which looks very untidy. It is here during the daytime rest the females lay eggs and larvae are removed.
In one apartment there can be several nests, and therefore the destruction of one of them, even the largest one, will not relieve the owners of the premises from parasites.
To assess how quickly bed bugs multiply, it is enough to calculate the offspring from one female per unit of time: for one month from its eggs an average of about 30-70 larvae will appear, most of which will live to an adult state.
During the life of one female lays about 500 eggs, and its descendants within a month are able to reproduce themselves. Not surprisingly, usually infecting an apartment with bugs reminds of an invasion: literally within a week due to the rapid multiplication of their number can increase many times.
The largest nests and clumps of bedbugs are in places closest to beds and sofas, and more often - in themselves. Here, bedbugs feel most comfortable and can be fed almost without the cost of energy to move.
Substances and insects that prevent bugs from multiplying
Despite more and more actively developing methods of fighting bugs, an ideal solution to stop the reproduction of parasites has not yet been found. Most of the drugs are able to kill adult bugs and their larvae, but often do not affect the eggs of insects. This requires multiple treatments of the apartment.
It is known that powders such as Pyrethrum and morally obsolete Dust can disrupt the reproductive function of bedbugs. However, their ability to simply cause insect poisoning has an even greater effect in the fight against parasites.
In natural populations that parasitize colonies of birds and rodents, reproduction of bedbugs is controlled by insects-superparasites. To such pests bugs include some riders and flies, laying eggs in eggs of bedbugs.
The larva of the bug emerging from the egg is infected, in its body the larvae of the superparasite develop, and in most cases the nymph dies after the first or second molt. The larvae of the rider pupate in the body of the bug and then adult insects leave it.
Of course, at home, such a biological fight against bugs is impossible: few of the residents of the apartments will allow flying around the room flocks of Simuliidae, which are able to regulate the number of bedbugs only within certain limits.
In general, today the most effective way to stop the reproduction of bed bugs is the direct destruction of them by powerful and effective insecticides.