Little jumping insects in the apartment, especially if you meet them even in the daytime, and biting people and pets are fleas. No one else from the bloodsucking parasites penetrating the human habitation is able to jump. Conversely, other bouncing insects do not bite a person.
In nature, there are about 1000 different types of fleas. Most of them parasitize on certain species of animals, but if necessary, easily changes their host (for example, a cat flea can easily parasitize on dogs, and canine dogs on cats). Cat, dog and rat fleas are so indiscriminate in the choice of their prey that they "very willingly" bite a person.
The bites of fleas are quite painful and can cause serious allergic reactions. In addition, constantly changing the owner, this leaping bloodsucking insect can tolerate pathogens that are deadly to humans and animals.
On a note
Fleas are on the body of the animal only during nutrition, while the rest of life is spent in warm secluded places. In houses such places become animal litter, corners and cracks in the floor, where dust and wool accumulate, forming an ideal environment for the development of their eggs and larvae.
Appearance and structure of fleas
Small jumping bloodsuckers have a rather distinctive appearance and even in small sizes are easily different from other insects. They have a narrow, flattened lateral body 2-5 mm long. Its color is brown, almost black, the surface of the chitinous shell is smooth, shiny. Under a microscope on the body of a flea, one can consider individual spines and hairs:
The legs of the last, back pair are significantly enlarged and have powerful muscles. Thanks to them, these little insects are able to jump far, so that in the apartment they easily move between shelters, and in case of danger jump so quickly that the jump itself is not noticed by the human eye.
It is interesting
Fleas are world record breakers of jumping. An average individual with a body length of 3 mm can jump a distance of 30 cm, that is, 100 times greater than its length. If people had such abilities, it would be normal for a person to jump 160 meters in length.
The eyes of the fleas are simple, almost not functional. Basic information about the environment of fleas is obtained using small antennas and a special sensory organ that can catch air vibrations.
Generally speaking, fleas refer to winged insects, and the absence of wings in them - adaptation to the parasitic way of life. Without wings, it is easier for them to move in wool and to escape the teeth of their victims.
Who and how do fleas suck blood
Fleas can eat on a wide variety of hosts - from birds and bats to humans and cattle. Unlike other blood-sucking parasites, fleas do not have strict specialization and easily pass from one host to another.
Moreover, a flea that today bit a person, a few days ago could feed on a rat or a dog. And on her body, in the mouthpiece or intestine, there may be viruses and bacteria that she collects on all her food sources.
The oral flea of the fleas is a piercing-sucking type, it is provided with special bristles, by which the insect easily pierces the skin. However, due to the relatively small size of the jaws, the flea is literally forced to immerse the head in the skin to reach the blood vessel:
Fleas feed mainly in the daytime, so in the apartment they are easy to notice jumping precisely during daylight hours. When attacked, the insect usually makes a few bites at a distance of 1-2 cm from each other. Usually traces of them line up in a chain, because of what flea bites can sometimes be confused with bites bugs.
What are dangerous jumping bloodsuckers
During the bite, a small jumping bloodsucker pierces the skin, incidentally injecting under the skin excreta of the salivary glands, which causes irritation and itching on the victim's body. In some cases, irritation can reach the size of an allergic reaction and is called a pulicosis. In this case, the mucous membranes (the appearance of ulcers and abscesses), the lymphatic (swelling of the lymph nodes) and even the nervous system are involved in the lesion area.
However, the greatest danger lies in the ability of fleas to carry the pathogens of various diseases. Plague, encephalitis, tularemia, erysipeloid, pseudotuberculosis, brucellosis, melioidosis, pasteurellosis, anthrax, typhus are only a brief list of diseases that a leaping, blood-sucking insect can reward.
Means for breeding fleas
Means for the destruction of fleas are divided into two types. The former are intended for the treatment of animals and usually contain insecticides in low concentrations. With the help of the second, rooms for the complete destruction of fleas are processed, and these preparations mostly contain insecticides in sufficiently high concentrations, so they will not be suitable for harassing fleas on domestic animals.
Preparations for the treatment of animals are produced mainly in the following forms:
- drops on the withers - the most famous of them Stronghold, Hartz, Bars, Frontline
- sprays from fleas - Hartz, Blochnet, Advantix, Bayer
- anti-block collars - Kiltix, Leopard, Bolfo, Hartz
- shampoos against fleas - Meadow, Phyto-Elite, Rolf Club.
To get rid of fleas of animals with normal hair, sprays or drops on the withers are usually used. Shampoos are good for pets with very sensitive skin and long hair. Collars are often used not to kill insects on an already infected pet, but to protect the animal from attacking them (parasites can easily jump onto an unprotected cat or dog, for example, on the street).
The composition of facilities for the treatment of premises mainly includes organophosphate insecticides and pyrethroids. When used correctly, they cause the death of all insects in the room, but with careless handling can cause allergies and poisoning in humans and domestic animals.
The most effective and accessible of these means Get, Lambda Zone, Delta Zone, Executioner, Cucaracha, Chlorpyrimac, Forsyth, Tetriks, Carbofos, etc.
"In the summer at the dacha everyone was bitten. I came, I look, my hands and feet are all swollen. And I was bitten, especially when I slept during the day. Sister immediately identified the fleas, as they jump. Urgently rushed to process the cats. Washed, the collars put on - nothing. Fleas no less, even more jump in the house steel. It was necessary to process the whole house with Carbophos. Have opened a cellar, and there generally horror. In general, namayalis, but at least the last month of the summer normally rested. "
Elena Anatolievna, Cheboksary
What to do if parasites jump in an apartment
If the apartment found jumping blood-sucking insects, you should follow this sequence:
- first establish the source of infection;
- then carry out the treatment of animals;
- then already process the entire room.
The main sources of infection are usually two: fleas or bring from the street pets or family members (on clothes), or fleas themselves penetrate into the apartment from the cellars and attics, where initially parasitize in rats or, more rarely, in birds.
Handling of pets must be carried out in accordance with their age and health status. For calves, as well as weakened animals, specialized drugs should be used for mild, slightly toxic action.
- Shampoo relieves the fleas, but does not protect against the appearance of new ones, so after bathing, you should use an anti-block collar.
- The use of sprays requires a 2-3-hour exposure after treatment, then the animal must be thoroughly washed. The residual action of the spray allows you to do without the use of collars.
- Drops are applied point, on the withers, less often - along the spine. They can not be washed off for several days and continue to act for a long time.
After processing the animal, the main thing is to ensure its protection against fleas in the room. Otherwise, some of the jumping parasites will still be on the wool, and after the extermination of insects in the apartment some of them can survive on the animal.
Dog and cat litter are subjected to compulsory treatment and ventilation: a large number of adults and egg-laying fleas are concentrated in them. You can meet even developing larvae - legless vermiform, translucent creatures of a yellowish-brown color up to 4 mm in length:
The area of flea settlement covers the floor and walls at a level "up to the waist". The risk of falling beds, wall and floor carpets, soft toys. Insects feel free to feel themselves in warm and damp cracks, under the floor, behind the plinth - in those places where the most dust accumulates. Under these conditions, the eggs develop rapidly, and the parasites safely pass through all stages of development.
The very same treatment of the apartment against bouncing insects occurs in the following sequence
- From the house all inhabitants, including pets, are taken out.
- Soft things before handling should be thoroughly vacuumed to remove dust.
- The surface of the floor also needs to be vacuumed and wet cleaned.
- According to the instructions spray the product itself.
- The room is left in this state for several hours to fix the result.
- Before returning people and animals to the house, the apartment should be thoroughly ventilated, if necessary, wash the treated surfaces.
If there are so many fleas in the apartment, one treatment may not be enough. In this case, after 2 weeks, the treatment should be repeated.
Basement fleas: danger and specificity of the fight
The so-called basement fleas , often penetrating into apartments on the ground floors, are the most dangerous. Often they parasitize on rats and can carry on themselves the causative agents of severe human diseases.
On a note
It was rat fleas that caused the deadly epidemics of bubonic plague in medieval Europe. Because of them, according to various estimates, up to 60 million people died in a few years.
If the fleas come to the apartment from the basement, then even qualitative treatment of the dwelling will only have a temporary effect. Parasites should be brought out first of all, where they are the most - in the basement. To process a cellar independently, especially in an apartment building, is quite difficult, and it is more rational to call special pest control services to destroy parasites.
And finally: the most reliable protection against fleas is prevention. The main preventive tool is to protect pets from fleas on the street. Pets should not be allowed to stray dogs and cats, after a walk in the field they should be carefully combed, and in summer - to wear collars on them.
To protect the same room from fleets penetrating themselves, it is necessary to regularly carry out wet cleaning with the addition of water to the water of the wormwood decoction, and near the windows and entrance doors to hang off the deterrent sections from the insects. This will significantly reduce the risk of infection by fleas.