Home insects are so diverse that even their main representatives will not have enough fingers to enumerate them. Nevertheless, you can still try to classify them: for example, by the degree of harmfulness and danger to humans. And to ensure that the reader can always quickly understand who exactly he has met in his home, a photo of house insects with names will be shown below.
So, all domestic insects can be divided into the following groups:
- Home insect parasites are those insects in the house that bite a person and feed on his blood. Parasites include bugs, mosquitoes, lice and fleas, temporarily or permanently living near a person and able to reproduce in his home.
- Pests are those arthropods that do not directly touch the person, but actively harm various objects in the house or food, making them unfit. These include well-known cockroaches, moths, springtails, whiteflies, ants, termites, lice, beetles, and a book louse.
- Harmless cohabitants who do not pose a danger to humans and do no harm to the house. These are small spiders, scales, flycatchers and centipedes.
You can also highlight another group of insects in the house - the so-called random "guests" who fly through the window, "come" on clothes or creep into the living quarters themselves. Among them, among others, may be already mentioned parasites, for example, ticks or mosquitoes, pests such as hrusk-beetles and flies, and relatively harmless insects - forest bugs , bees and wasps, lacewings and many others.
However, most of them are still not domestic insects, so we will talk about the first three groups further.
It is worth noting that many small arthropods in the house - to be exact - are not insects at all. For example, they are lice, centipedes and spiders, which are called insects by ignorance or simply for convenience. Nevertheless, we will talk about them further with photos and titles, so that the owner of the apartment will be able to determine his cohabitants if necessary.
Cockroaches in the house: dirt and unsanitary conditions
Cockroaches - perhaps the most famous domestic insect pests. The photo below shows their species, who live in apartments - naturally, against the will of the owners.
Of course, the first place is occupied by one of the most numerous and well-known domestic insects - the red cockroach (which also has the other name "prusak"):
The second type, quite familiar for our latitudes, is a black cockroach (the Latin name is Blatta orientalis). This is a relatively large domestic insect, gradually disappearing under the onslaught of its red-headed fellow (the cockroach actively eats eggs of a black cockroach).
Photo of a black cockroach:
The third species of these pests is the American cockroach (Latin name Periplaneta americana):
Initially, it was extremely rare for our country, however, with the development of international trade, this kind began to conquer warehouses and shops of large megacities, and after that - the neighboring living quarters.
The key to the successful "occupancy" of these house pests of human habitation is the peculiarities of their biology. Cockroaches are insects that eat absolutely any food waste in the house, as well as many other items of everyday use - for example, with various glues, shoe cream, paper. In addition, they can spend quite a while without food - sometimes even up to 20 days.
Below are a few more photos of these household pests:
Cockroaches multiply very quickly , and the life expectancy of an adult is about 9-16 months.
In addition to the obvious harm that the cockroaches cause to various foods (eat, pollute them), they are, in addition, carriers of various infectious diseases and even the eggs of some helminths.
Therefore, the fight against these domestic insects must be carried out necessarily.
Bed bugs: who bites at night
Bed bugs are perhaps the most unpleasant home insect parasites. The main harm they cause to a person is, undoubtedly, bites. And although to date there is no scientifically proven fact that these parasites infect any infectious diseases, however, in their organisms repeatedly found dangerous pathogens.
In the photo there is a nest of these small parasites in the mattress:
And then in the photo - adult bugs, their larvae and eggs:
Bedbugs can live practically in any secluded places of an apartment, here they multiply with incredible speed. Being typical parasites, at night these insects creep onto the bed, bite a man and suck his blood. It is interesting that larvae begin to eat from the first days of life and differ from adult bedbugs only by their size.
Generally speaking, several types of bed bugs can parasitize a person's house, but it is almost impossible to distinguish them from each other without a microscope and certain knowledge.
In the photo - blood-drunk bugs:
To poison these small parasites as a whole is much more difficult than cockroaches, since a significant proportion of the available insecticides against them are simply powerless. Usually for the extermination of bedbugs special aerosol insecticides, sprays, sometimes dusts are used. Very effective is the destruction of bedbugs with a cold fog.
Ants are among the hardest-to-breed domestic pests. Most often in the apartment of a man you can meet representatives of two species of these insects - red house ants, called Pharaohs, and ants-thieves. For a layman to distinguish them from each other these two species will be quite difficult, but, nevertheless, pharaoh ants are still more frequent guests in people's homes.
In the photo - pharaoh ants on the kitchen table (Latin name Monomorium pharaonis):
And in this photo you can see how the house ants move in a string between the food source and the nest:
Speaking about the damage caused to a person, it can be said that these domestic pests - like many of their fellow workers "in the shop" - spoil food, and are also able to carry various infections.
The main problem in the breeding of ants is that often their colonies have many nests, united with each other and located even in different apartments, garbage chutes and basements (super-hive). That is why the destruction of one such nest will not bring the desired effect: as long as there is a single colony, the ants will come back again and again and settle in the apartment.
It is necessary to fight these small domestic pests - better than all tenants at once. Only in this case, efforts will not be in vain, otherwise - only temporary removal or reduction of the number of ants in each individual apartment can be achieved.
For extermination of ants, almost any modern insecticide will do, but the best option will still be special poisoned baits, for example, in the form of gels.
Fleas: defectors from pets
The only bugs, mentioned above, unfortunately, the list of home bloodsucking insects does not end there. Fleas are another parasite that you can often find in a person's house.
They and bugs most often bite in the house.
By and large, the "permanent residence" of fleas is not: they can be found both in the apartment and in the wild. In the house they usually keep close to resting places for pets, on which they also parasitize, feeding on blood.
Fleas are ordinary domestic bloodsucking insects, which easily pass from one master to another (for example, to humans). Blood is needed for them both for nutrition and for reproduction - without it, the eggs inside the female simply do not develop.
The photo shows one of the most common fleas - cat (Latin name Ctenocephalides felis):
Potentially, fleas are able to carry a lot of deadly diseases - from plague and typhoid to encephalitis and brucellosis, and therefore it is necessary to struggle with them especially diligently. But even if there is no infection in a single insect, its bite itself is quite painful, it causes severe itching and, as a consequence, the appearance of pustular inflammations on the skin.
Generating fleas as a whole is not so difficult if you act competently. First, it is necessary to pour these parasites on domestic animals, in their litter and rest places. Secondly, you need to process the whole apartment, because the flea larvae can be found in sex rags, in the crevices of the floors, and behind the skirting boards.
Mole: the threat of food and clothing
Moles are a fairly large group of insects, including several types of domestic pests. Some of them eat groceries and cereals, spoiling the stocks of products, while others - are harming clothes, preferring mainly fur and wool products (fur coat moth).
On the photo - food moth:
But the photos of the moth and her larvae:
This photo shows the larva of the fur coat in a protective cheholchika:
All adult moths are butterflies. They are active pests at the stage of the caterpillar, but adult insects can not eat at all.
That is why, killing at home a single moth butterfly flying near a closet with clothes or in the kitchen, it is unlikely to achieve destruction or even a reduction in the number of these pests - most likely the adult insect has already laid eggs, and further "battle" should be directed directly against them and caterpillars, which are excreted approximately 6 to 14 days after the masonry.
The moth is taken out with insecticides, and also if it is, of course, possible - by high temperatures (up to 70 ° C) or, conversely, by freezing clothes. Folk remedies based on lavender and various other herbal remedies, unfortunately, will not relieve the home of this domestic insect pest - they can only be used to prevent infection of the premises.
The fight against food moths should be directed primarily at the destruction of contaminated food.
Moist in the house - not quite insects
But the moss (as already mentioned at the beginning) can not be attributed to insects living in the house - these arthropods belong to the class of higher cancers.
This photo shows the common bream-battleship (Latin name Armadillidium vulgare):
And here - the mocchrica is a rough, more frequent guest in the houses:
They do not cause particular harm to humans, unlike, for example, typical parasites of bedbugs, do not inflict: only occasionally the scabies spoil the stocks of vegetables or (if they do) damage the young parts of houseplants. Nevertheless, the meeting with these miniature cohabitants is always unpleasant.
Typically, lice appear in those rooms where high humidity is constantly maintained or there are water leaks: usually bathrooms and toilets. Here, in excess, there are also secluded dark shelters (like the cockroaches, cockroaches do not like bright light), and a food source - for example, a bin in which you can eat various organic remains.
The existence of bastards is to some extent connected with water (after all, they are still crustaceans), and therefore it is quite easy to derive them.
In most cases, for this, it is only necessary to exclude the vital moisture for them: to dry the bathroom or, for example, to eliminate leakage in the tap. If these measures for some reason do not bring the desired effect, then you can exterminate a deadly insecticide using any modern insecticide (Get, Delta-Zona, Tsifoks, Dobrokhim FOS, etc.).
Beetles-skin-tanners: enemies of books and clothes
Beetle-eater is one of the most striking examples of an insect in a person's house, the co-habitation with which the owner of an apartment usually does not know. The reason for this is simple: adults of the beetle-bug beetle barely reach a length of 3.5 mm, and their larvae are 2 mm.
In general, various species of bug beetles are many, in nature they almost always settle where there are in excess any organic residues of animals, birds or other insects. If we talk about human habitation, then these house insects settle where there is paper, leather or clothing.
In apartments or houses these pests feed on book bindings, wardrobe items and even plain paper. It can be said that the eelheads in their food preferences are real "universals": their larvae can be found, among other things, in cereals, herbariums and collections of insect entomologists. They are able to eat even the remains of debris in the dust and multiply for years at the baseboards, where no one can see them.
The photo depicts a museum kozheed (otherwise - a museum beetle, in Latin Anthrenus museorum), which got its name back in ancient times and is one of the most frequent pests of museum exhibits:
However, damage to food and household items is not the worst thing that can be expected from beetle bugs. It is proved that these domestic pests are capable of causing helminth infections and even some infectious diseases, so their timely destruction is simply necessary.
Most often, the skinheads are taken out with various aerosol insecticides, but also the folk remedies in case of these insects can be of considerable help. For example, the larvae of these beetles do not tolerate the smell of lavender and wormwood, so their use, if not exterminate insects, can be an excellent preventive measure.
Scales are innocuous observers
Scales - this is perhaps the most "quiet" and almost harmless species of domestic insects. By way of life, they can be compared, for example, with mochrica: these small roommates also love moisture, darkness and heat.
The photo shows the most common species - sugar scales (otherwise - ordinary, Latin name Lepisma saccharina):
These domestic insects feed on various organic substances, which are found in the dust, sugar on the table, breadcrumbs, and sometimes all that the beetle-bugs, mentioned above, prefer.
Scales never breed in large numbers, and the eyes come up mostly in the evenings, when the owner of the room turns on the light and finds the insects unawares (by the way, these neighbors have an impressive speed for their size and quickly hide in saving shelters).
With scales, they rarely fight purposefully and are usually removed in parallel with other synanthropic insects. For this purpose, as a rule, use various aerosol insecticides, although you can get rid of them in the simplest ways - cold or dry in the house.
Spiders and their benefits
Spiders are another example of invertebrates living in the house that are not insects. Their presence is perhaps the most terrible thing that can be expected from them: spiders in a person's home are neither parasites nor pests.
On the contrary, these "cohabitants" can be called a kind of human helpers in the fight against domestic insects, since their main "task" here is to catch flies, cockroaches and mosquitoes. Thus, if spiders do not tighten their nets all the corners in the room, they can be considered, rather, useful.
In this photo one of the most frequent "neighbors" is a spider-haymaker (a spider-legged spider, the Latin name Pholcidae):
And here - an ordinary spider-cross (Araneus diadematus):
Spiders are rarely numerous in the house, so it is not difficult to take them out: they are most often caught, for example, with a broom and thrown out together with a cobweb into the street.
Lice: always near - in the house and on the street
A louse is a classic bloodsucking parasite. These insects are not tied to the house, but directly to the person himself, and live outside his body or at least clothes are not capable of. That is why lice are not called typical house insects.
In the photo there is a head louse, which is also a carrier of some dangerous infectious diseases:
And the picture below shows a pubic louse, whose presence is considered a sexually transmitted disease (another name is a carpenter, Pthirus pubis):
Adult louse-lice and their larvae spend most of the time clinging to the human hair tightly, and to feed - once every few hours they slip onto the surface of the skin. Their eggs in a dense shell are called nits and greatly damage the appearance of the hair.
Due to the fact that lice feed on human blood and, consequently, constantly bite, their presence causes severe itching. To date, there is a large arsenal of specialized remedies for lice: pediculicide shampoos, sprays and combs.
Mosquitos: guests for a few days
It is difficult to imagine a person who does not know what mosquitoes look like. These insects appear in the house for a short time only in order to get drunk blood and fly back to the street to lay eggs.
Bloodsuckers are exclusively females (the blood they need to produce eggs), but males, as a rule, feed on plant nectars.
An ordinary mosquito, the most common biting parasite of our country (another name is a mosquito-pussy, Culex pipiens):
And the next picture shows a malarial mosquito - an insect, usually found in the homes of people living in the tropics, and carrying the corresponding disease. The photo shows how he keeps his body - this is the main way to distinguish a malarial mosquito from his usual fellow:
On a note
Many other types of mosquitoes are also able to tolerate life-threatening infectious diseases. Fortunately, this trouble practically does not affect our latitudes, and the only thing that a mosquito can be dangerous for the population of our country is a strong itch that appears after a bite.
The development of mosquitoes is always closely connected with water, therefore houses with flooded cellars are an ideal place for reproduction of these bloodsucking parasites. Also very often these insects are found in private homes and in cottages where an available source of moisture is always available nearby.
There are a lot of mosquito bites today: these are ointments, creams, and various other forms of repellents. The main way to prevent penetration into the apartment of these house insects are mosquito nets fixed to windows, as well as maintaining the cellar and yard territories in a normal state.
Flies in the house and harm from them
Flies are known to everyone as a "dirty" insect. Indeed, their whole lives are, to one degree or another, associated with various kinds of waste, both vegetable and animal.
In the house of a person, flies live and actively multiply, provided that there are organic remains - for example, food. Often they settle where there are domestic animals, in the feces and remains of food which the larvae of flies successfully develop. In addition, often these insect pests are produced in the attics of houses in the stocks of bird droppings.
In the photo there is a gray meatfly (Latin name Sarcophagidae):
And in this photo the room fly is presented, which got its name because it lives exclusively next to the person, and in the distance from its habitat it is extremely rare:
Knowing at least a little about the way of life flies, it's easy to guess and their harmful significance for humans. In addition to the fact that these domestic insects simply pollute the products and often make them unfit for consumption due to the laying of eggs (for example, in pieces of meat or fish), flies are also dangerous because they are able to carry excreta on human paws various infectious diseases and eggs of helminths.
Flies are eradicated by direct extermination using a variety of insecticides, hanging glue traps and trivial maintenance of cleanliness in the room.
In a man's house, the tail-eared is often the inhabitants of flower pots, and if we talk about the household plot, they can often be found in greenhouses and greenhouses.
Norytvostki - very small domestic insects (some modern scientists tend to allocate them in a separate class). In the photo you can see these miniature "neighbors" on the coma of the ground from a flower pot:
Damaging stalks begins only when there are a lot of them: they damage underground parts of plants and - occasionally - low leaves.
These domestic insects live only in wet conditions, so when they appear in the soil of plants, it is necessary first of all to try to reduce watering as much as possible. In addition, experienced flower growers are advised to add special preparations to the water for irrigation, and as a preventive measure - to use for planting plants prepared decontaminated soil and create a drainage in the pot that will not allow water to accumulate.
Kivsyaks and centipedes
Centipedes, kivsyaks and centipedes, though not belonging to the class of insects, but, nevertheless, can be called home invertebrates. In general, their infrequent appearance directly into a man's home does not do any harm, however, frankly, their appearance is not entirely pleasant.
Kivsyaks along with earthworms on homestead lands play a significant positive role in the formation of humus, and centipedes actively destroy the larvae of harmful agricultural insects, so all of them, rather, can be attributed to people useful to humans than to pests.
In a human dwelling, these invertebrates fall in the majority with the onset of cold weather - they prefer to hide in dark, warm and damp places (mostly in cellars, rarely in bathrooms and toilets).
In the photo there is a Crimean kivsyak (Latin name Pachyiulus flavipes), a fetid creature, settling along with mokritsami in damp places:
And here - an ordinary flytrap, a predatory creature, feeding on mosquitoes, ants, small cockroaches and flies:
All centipedes rarely reproduce in large quantities and therefore do not require special excretion.
Insects - pests of a wooden house
A separate conversation deserves a number of insect pests of a wooden house. They do not live in rooms and do not show their eyes, but their active life can lead to a decrease in the strength of wooden structures and even the subsequent destruction of buildings.
Among such insects living in a wooden house, we can distinguish ants-woodworms, beetles, grinders, some moles, and in the south of our country - termites. To protect against these pests, the construction of the house at the construction stage is treated with special stains or impregnations, and then regularly painted.
The photo shows a red-breasted ant-woodworm (Latin name Camponotus herculeanus):
And here - the bug grinder:
In this photo you can see a termite - a typical inhabitant of Turkmenistan, sometimes penetrating into the southern regions of our country:
"Flying" insects in the house
All other insects that can be found in a person's house are most rationally attributed to casual "zaletny" guests. This group includes different butterflies, beetles, cicadas, bug-protectors, ladybugs, as well as wasps, bees and hornets.
Purposefully to destroy them is not necessary, but for their own peace and security it is enough simply to release insects into the open window. That's only with some of them you need to be neat - they can sting (for example, hornet) or severely spoil the air (like, for example, a bug-stink).