For those who are accustomed to counting the woodworm as insects, it may seem surprising that in reality these creatures are representatives of a squad of isopods, in fact they are small crustaceans. Their closest biological relatives are large giant equinox crayfish, as well as a large number of interesting marine crustaceans, called sea cockroaches.
But the ordinary crayfish that we are accustomed to, although it can be relied on with a stretch to the relatives of the lice, but far enough - systematically, the lice and crayfish have a not very high degree of kinship.
On a note
Thus, to say that the mocrica is an insect is completely not true, and is a gross mistake. With insects, the same as for a man with a tortoise. And, accordingly, to call the beetles beetles or bugs is also a common mistake by the townsfolk.
In the photo below - the common mackerel (Armadillidium vulgare) in the suburban area:
Mokritsy - crustaceans, leading a rather secretive way of life and rarely come across to a person. For this reason, attention is mainly paid to biologists, as well as gardening, to which these creatures can damage crops. Nevertheless, there is a lot of interesting in both biology and anatomy of the apple-tree - we will continue to talk about these entertaining nuances and talk ...
Appearance and photos of the bast
Virtually all types of woodlice have the characteristic appearance of a small "battleship" with a large number of legs.
Photos of the beetroot:
And here is a photo of an armadillo:
The body of the lice is covered with hard and hard chitinous scutes, protecting it from numerous predators. It is these shields that create the characteristic appearance of the licorice and clearly distinguish it from the majority of insects. So, for example, beetles or semi-feathery insects have two dense wings, but never 9-10 separate segments, like those of the moquers.
Below in the photo, division of the body of the woodlice into separate segments is clearly visible:
The lice have 7 pairs of walking legs, which distinguishes them from the same river cancer with five pairs of walking legs and three pairs of legs, turned into tools for eating. Insects have only 3 pairs of legs.
The internal structure of the lice is similar to that of ordinary cancers. Breathing organs resemble gills, but work in the lungs and are located at the base of five pairs of thoracic legs.
All lice have antennae from several segments, along the length and kink of which sometimes separate species of woodworms are distinguished. In the photo below, these antennae are clearly visible in one of the species:
As a rule, the lice are painted absolutely unattractively - this allows them to disguise themselves on the ground, in the grass and under the stones. The two most common types of licorice in our country have a gray color of the body, others can be lighter and with green shades in color. Only in some species on the body there are pictures or stripes.
There are no special outgrowths and, especially hair, on the body of the woodworm.
"My son told us on the phone for two days how he was afraid of his grandmother and how he was afraid to go into the summer shower, because there is a furry mocrit on the wall. When they came to pick him up, they went into the shower for the sake of interest. There, under the ceiling, sit the flytraps - such brisk millipedes that flies eat. We explained everything to him in detail, but probably he just wanted us to come quickly. "
Here is another photo showing a common-breed bark beetle, the most common in the European part of Russia:
The usual length of the body is 0,5-1,5 cm, and the largest species barely grow to 3-4 cm in length. Sometimes, with the moccas, the larger millipedes from the glomeris family are confused because of the similar appearance:
Nevertheless, although the bipedal centipedes are similar in appearance to the apple tree, they differ greatly in their lifestyle and biology.
Types of woodlice: from domestic to oceanic
Today, scientists count more than 5,000 species of licorice all over the world, of which only a few dozen species are found in our country. And the lice are quite heat-loving creatures, and therefore most of their species lives in the tropics and in the subtropical belts.
Despite the similarity of the appearance of different woodworms, even the most unprepared person can easily distinguish the most common varieties of them.
For example, in the photo below, an ordinary bark beetle is shown, quite slow and slow. In danger, it has the habit of curling up into a ball. Some individuals on the back have yellowish spots:
Ordinary mokritsa is most often found in vegetable gardens, vacant lots and in cellars.
And then in the photo - the mocchrica is rough, more mobile and flat than the previous one. It is she who is known as a domesticated mocrica, as it often penetrates from the cellar into the house:
At the same time, like domestic insects, the lice in the room try to hide in the most secluded places, choosing the most damp angles, and come to the eye only by chance.
And in the photo below, there is a sea mare that inhabits the shallow waters of the Mediterranean Sea. This is one of the few species that has returned to its original habitat:
In addition, there are species of woodworm, well adapted to life in a very dry climate. For example, Hemilepistus reaumuri - dwells in the deserts of Asia Minor and North Africa, digging for protection from the sun and the heat of the hole depths up to a meter.
In the photo - the deserted mocryca leaves in the mink:
Giant sea isopods, sometimes growing to 75 cm in length, are not strictly mochricas, and are called so in the people only because of the similarity of their appearance with the appearance of these lice.
It is interesting
There is also a whole set of insect and millipede species, which in the people are often called mochrits, but which do not belong to them, and others - and they are not very similar to them at all. For example:
- Scales, not at all similar to licorice, but which, nevertheless, are so often called;
- Kivsyaki - long vermiform centipedes, with a fright curling up in a spiral. They are confused with the lice because they also meet in damp places;
- Glomeris, like two drops of water similar to ordinary woodworms, but they are not.
Among the wetberries there are no poisonous species, and you can not get the poison from the bastards, although this contradicts some medieval treatises. Nevertheless, the taste of the lice is rather disgusting - courageous admirers of cancers and shrimps claimed that this crustacean gives off a lot of urea.
It is interesting
At the same time, the giant isopods ("giant lice") taste very good, but because of the complexity of their prey, it is extremely difficult to taste such a dish.
Next on the pictures - lice, which can be found almost in any garden:
The lobsters sometimes look very original, although the features of anatomy characteristic of the whole detachment retain all kinds.
It is interesting
The so-called language mocryca, a parasitic crustacean, attached to the base of the tongue of certain species of fish, is not a lice. It feeds on the owner's blood and mucus secreted by the fish.
Lifestyle and interesting features of the biology of bark beetles
Mokritsy - the only crustaceans, completely switched to the land way of life.
Only a few species have returned to the aquatic environment, but they have preserved the adaptations to the terrestrial way of life. An example of this are the species of sea buckwheat found in the sea (see photo):
Nevertheless, the lice and on land are quite strongly attached to moisture. They prefer to settle in the shade, in moist soil, at the roots of trees, under rocks and in cellars and cellars - wherever humidity and coolness remain.
Optimal conditions for the existence of most species of Moisture are humidity around 95% and temperature of about 25 ° C.
It is interesting
The most heat resistant species of the Hemilepistus, even in the deserts of Central Asia and Africa, dig in the sand of the mink and live at a depth where the temperature does not rise above 26 ° C and does not fall below 10 ° C, and the humidity is 95-100%. From burrows they are chosen mainly at night and wander through the desert at comfortable for them 15-17 ° C.
Homemade woodlocks are often messengers of problems with sewerage or water supply, or a clear sign that the house has a damp basement or an attic with a leaking roof. In apartments and houses these animals make their way, as a rule, from cellars and wet attics.
Mokritsy - night creatures, and during the daytime they are active only early in the morning or late in the evening. Basically in the daytime they hide under stones, logs and grass, and at night they get out of shelters in search of food.
They feed on the woodlice with various plant remains: fruits, roots, rotting leaves, grass, falling flowers. In apartments and houses they can be quite satisfied with mold fungi, leaves of house plants in flower pots and even mucus with bacteria and dust in the bathrooms.
It is interesting
Moistice is extremely dependent on the sources of moisture, which they moisten their gills. If there is a lack of moisture, the crustacean may die from suffocation, since the normal functioning of the respiratory system is impaired.
Many lice trees under harsh environmental conditions fall into a hibernation. These are, for example, all the lice that inhabit the territory of Russia, as well as desert species that are in a state of suspended animation in winter.
How do the licks grow?
Mosquitoes breed regardless of the season, but eggs in females develop only when the animal is not in hibernation and eats well. It is interesting that the sexual act itself in the moccasins lasts a very long time - the female spermatheca opens only for several hours after molting, and the male very early finds it and waits in the appropriate position until the old veils of his lover are discarded.
After fertilization, the eggs enter a special brood pouch located on the abdomen of the female in the region of the last pair of legs. Here they are abundantly supplied with water from special glands and ventilated due to the fact that the front edge of the bag is not closed.
Out of the eggs, larvae of the lobster, called "manga" in biology, emerge. From the adult specimen the larva of the lobster is distinguished only by the size and underdevelopment of the last pair of legs. A few days later, the field of exit from the bag, the mancha moults and turns into a young slag.
The photo below shows the larvae of the lobster, just released from the eggs:
On average (for different species) egg development in the brood bag lasts 30-35 days, and larvae after hatching become sexually mature after about 100 days.
It is interesting
All the lice have developed adult care for young people. For example, the breeding of desert scorpions occurs in their mink, and in case of danger, the adult crawfish crawls to the exit and turns into a ball, locking its entrance to the hole with its shields. In addition, parents lead their brood to sources of food and water up to a certain age.
The total life expectancy of licorice varies from six months to several years. The species that flow into the anabiosis live longer than their tropical counterparts.
The lycanthicles in the apartment and in the garden are pests, invaders or random guests?
In most biocenoses, the lice are very important participants in the processes of soil formation. They process complex plant remains, and their excrement is a valuable fertilizer. In the deserts and steppes of the mink, the loka contributes to the ventilation of the soil and its better moistening.
Samples themselves, under suitable conditions, multiply in large quantities and serve as food for many species of insects, birds and reptiles.
Typical pests of licorice are only in greenhouses and in vegetable gardens, where they can damage the roots of cultivated plants, leaves on bushes and young seedlings. In the cellars and cellars, the woodlice sometimes feeds on the potatoes and carrots stored here, but in most cases, the losses from them are microscopic, and they cause serious damages only if they multiply very much.
On a note
Mosquitoes do not infect the garden and do not enter it - they live here all the time. Only under normal conditions they are not noticeable here, and with strong moistening of the site and breaks in digging can multiply in large quantities.
In the main mass of the lice, those barely noticeable, but very useful creatures that swarm under a forest or field bedding of grass and leaves, and are engaged in the fact that they utilize plant components that are not used by other members of the natural community. And if you see them someday, then remember that of all the crustaceans, only they had the courage to conquer the land environment. And this is a great achievement!