The so-called chicken fleas are widely spread parasites of birds, parasitizing not only on chickens, but also on many other birds. Often they are found even on parrots and canaries, but the main harm is caused by farmer's poultry farms, where multiplying in large numbers can lead to the death of birds, a decrease in the number of eggs and the spread of dangerous infectious diseases.
Due to the fact that these parasites have many specific features of biology, getting rid of chicken fleas is somewhat more difficult than fighting fleas in dogs or cats. Quite specific, and the treatment of flea hens. Nevertheless, all these procedures have been worked out well enough for today, and therefore a theoretically prepared farmer has a quick and successful fight against chicken fleas.
Appearance and features of parasites
Flea chicken appearance is little different from other fleas, including - and from fleas of mammals. It has the same dark, shiny body, about one and a half millimeters long and devoid of wings, it also jumps well. Only under a microscope fleas in chickens are distinguished by the presence of well-marked tendrils and developed eyes.
In general, avian fleas have a somewhat higher, hunched body. Because of this, they are somewhat more compressed laterally than the already "flat" fleas in cats and dogs, and therefore, even when the parasite is caught with fingers, it is almost impossible to crush it.
On a note
The extra strength of the flea body is given by a strong chitinous cover. In most cases, it protects the insect from accidental death under the claws or beak of a bird trying to scratch it. In general, in plumage in birds, fleas are more safe than in animal hair, they multiply faster here and infect birds more intensively
More often than not, fleas from the chickens come to their eyes when they crawl out of the plumage to feed on bare skin around the beak and eyes, and also on their legs. The same parasites that swarm in the plumage are almost invisible and can attract attention only by greatly upsetting the bird and making it very uneasy to behave. In the open areas of the body of the bird, the chicken fleas look like small dark outgrowths, like moles in humans, and do not even attract attention to themselves one by one.
On a note
Chicken fleas are well distinguished from other common ectoparasite of poultry - red bird tick, the ability to jump. At the tick, the body has a distinct red color (in fleas it is brown), and the legs are widely apart, so that even at its tiny size they are noticeable well. Treatment for fleas and ticks means using completely different means, and getting rid of some parasites with drugs for others in many cases will not work.
Below you can see fleas in chickens. Such a number of parasites in a small area of the skin is typical for especially neglected cases, in which the birds themselves are depleted, often stopping to sweep:
A separate photo shows bird fleas under a microscope - they have a noticeably high body and well developed hind legs:
Next on the picture shows a parrot, infected with chicken fleas, - the parasites themselves are not visible, but the feathers on the stomach are plucked out by the bird.
Lifestyle, nutrition and reproduction of chicken fleas
Chicken fleas are different from fleas in mammals with high requirements to the microclimate in the habitat: the optimum temperature for their life is 40-41 ° C. This temperature can be provided only on the body of the birds themselves, under the feathers, and even in the nest under the incubating chicken the fleas will feel uncomfortable. For this reason, chicken fleas almost never leave the body of a bird.
Bird fleas know how to bite only the thin skin of birds. For this reason, cases of parasitizing these insects on mammals, including humans, are extremely rare. In rare cases, fleas in a hen house can bite a person, but they are not able to constantly live and reproduce in the distance from birds. Therefore, chicken fleas in the house are usually present only in the cells of birds.
It is interesting
Even a man's bite of a bird flea will not allow it to get enough: the blood vessels in humans are generally deeper than those of birds, and most often the parasite that has not adapted to such conditions after one bite simply leaves to seek another victim. Therefore, chicken fleas on a person do not parasitize and bite it only in extremely rare cases.
Despite such attachment to the owner, the fleas can not reproduce on the body of the bird. Female parasite with force pushes out of its body a portion of eggs (every day, about 3-6 pieces), which fly over a long distance and fall to the floor of the coop or bird nest.
Here vermicular larvae are hatched from flea eggs, which feed on the dry blood of the bird in the excrement of adult fleas, rotting pieces of organic matter and grass, and the droppings of birds, and after a few weeks they become stationary pupae. At the pupal stage, the insect is located until a bird appears near it for a long time - usually this happens when the pupa is in the old nest, and only after the nest is re-opened, many young and hungry fleas come out of the litter . Obviously, pupae of fleas can be at rest for many months while the nest is waiting for its summer tenants.
On a note
The life of an adult bird flea is several months, sometimes more than a year. Not surprisingly, often fleas "fly" on the birds in a new nest and already lay eggs. As a rule, several generations of fleas succeed in one season in one nest.
In the chicken coops the situation is especially difficult. If the bird in natural conditions leaves the parasite infected place after the departure of the chicks from the nest, chickens in the hen house do not have such an opportunity. Accordingly, birds are constantly tormented, and the development and reproduction of fleas takes place without breaks at an increased rate. That is why fighting with fleas in the hen-house should be especially diligent and this fight should begin immediately after the discovery of parasites.
Why are chicken fleas dangerous?
Fleas in birds are dangerous in the first place because they constantly irritate the bird, lead to nervous combs, force it to pull out feathers. With severe infection, the hens can develop anemia, sometimes they stop eating and die from exhaustion. Therefore, the treatment of chickens from fleas should begin as soon as the parasites have been found.
Even more dangerous for birds and for the person working with it, the ability of fleas to carry serious diseases. First of all, this brucellosis, salmonellosis, trypanosomiasis, sometimes in chicken fleas found causative agents of plague and encephalitis. On homestead hen houses, the probability of infection of birds with such diseases is especially high, as wild sparrows fly into chickens with chickens, they are grazed by pigeons, fleas from which may well fall into the chicken coop.
"There has never been such a thing before, and this summer they began to notice fleas from hens. And the further, the more. Several Belarusian horses stopped, and the orpinguons had a lot of this infection. One hen gave up sitting on eggs, we wondered why, did not know which treatment to apply. And when they carefully examined the nest, they were simply horrified - it was directly infested by parasites, it was necessary to throw out all eggs (as many as 28 pieces). Tell me, please, how to get rid of chicken fleas, so that it is effective and safe "
Ivan Petrovich, Nizhny Novgorod
Bird fleas are dangerous for humans because they are potentially capable of carrying the causative agents of a variety of helminth diseases and eggs. Chances to be bitten by a flea with the causative agent of the same encephalitis in the chicken coop are few, but the probability is always there. But worms carry almost all fleas, and regular bites of parasites on the body - an occasion to drink a course of funds from helminths.
On a note
In general, chickens living on free grazing and having the opportunity to leave aviaries are less likely to become seriously infected with fleas and are more tolerant of such parasitosis. On the ground, they have the ability to clean plumage in anthills or dust, and in general, often leaving the contaminated zone, they significantly reduce the intensity of reproduction of fleas in the hen house.
Nevertheless, if the fleas of chickens are still wound up, the birds need to be treated. With parasites - to fight, and the chicken coop - to diligently clean from larvae and pupae of insects.
Means for fighting chicken fleas
To remove fleas from chickens in a small household or from decorative birds at home, you can use specialized drops from fleas for cats or dogs. If such a remedy for chicken fleas does not enter the bird's digestive system, it does not cause any side effects and is safe enough.
In large farms, preparations in the form of a powder or ampoules for a solution, based on synthetic pyrethroids - substances that exert a nerve-paralytic effect on an insect, are very popular and are helping to get rid of chicken fleas.
Of the drops most effective Stronghold, Frontline, Bars, Advantage. Optimal for the price-quality-safety drops from fleas Dan.
For the treatment of hen houses, you can use almost any insecticidal drugs that are used to control cockroaches, bugs and fleas in the home - concentrates and microencapsulated preparations such as Get, Tsifoks, Cucaracha, Tetriks, Carbophos. Household insecticidal agents in cans, for example, Raptor, Reid, Combat, are less convenient for processing hen houses and are less economical on average.
When processing hen houses, it is necessary to take into account some specificity of both the fleas and the treated premises.
On a note
Drugs used to get rid of fleas of other domestic animals, well suited to owners of small houses with the number of chickens up to 10-20. To handle a larger number of birds you need to use special tools.
What if there is a lot of smoking?
For the treatment of industrial chicken coops and premises containing dozens or hundreds of birds, the following preparations are usually used:
- Butoks is a product based on the insecticide Deltamethrin. The drug is quite effective and allows you to fight fleas even in serious invasions. Its main advantage is the possibility of easy preparation of significant volumes of insecticide solution. Implement Butoks in ampoules of 1 ml, and to remove fleas should dissolve the contents of each ampoule in 4 liters of water. To apply the means to plumage birds usually use special sprayers. Butoksom can also handle the premises of poultry houses, from which all birds are removed. The concentration of the agent in the solution for the treatment of the coop is used the same as for the application of the means to the plumage of the bird.
- Another widely used drug is Deltamethrin powder. In 100 grams of such a powder contains 50 mg of Deltamethrin itself and a special inert filler powder. The product is simply sprayed onto the plumage of the bird and rubbed into the skin. If there is a special dust-spraying powder, you can process large chicken coops without poultry. It is important after this to withstand the premises of the order of a few hours, or better - days without cleaning and colonization in order that all the flea larvae have been trapped. Before settling the chicken in the room, you must change the litter in cages or enclosures, remove the litter, wet the cleaning and carefully ventilate the chicken coop.
When treating Butoks chicken and Deltamethrin powder, it is important to check that the product does not get into the respiratory tract or eyes. You can not treat the chicken by simply spraying the funds in the henhouse - each bird should be treated separately.
Use Deltamethrin powder and Butox should be in rubber gloves and a respirator.
We deduce bird parasites correctly
In order to rid the chickens or ornamental birds from fleas, it is necessary to treat each bird with anti-block drops. To do this, a few drops of the drug drip from the bottle into the back of the head, which are then diligently rubbed into the skin. Subsequently, the subcutaneous blood vessels spread throughout the body of the chicken, and the fleas that suck her blood will die.
When using Deltamethrin powder, the agent is applied to the entire body surface of the bird, except the head, and rubbed into the skin.
You can not eat eggs that have been demolished during the breeding of fleas from chickens. Insecticide penetrates blood into the yolk of eggs, and although it does not have a pronounced effect on the human body, it can lead to various side effects.
The henhouse itself needs to be processed after chickens have been treated and rid of fleas. It is important not to clean and wash the hen house before processing - the garbage taken out on the compost pile contains a huge number of flea larvae that will calmly develop on the heap itself and after a while infect fleas by visiting the heap of sparrows, and if it is close to the henhouse - and simply " ". Get rid of fleas in the hen house itself.
To process the chicken coop from fleas should be completely, with potholes (they contain the maximum number of parasites), a layer of waste on the floor, feeders and nests. If there is too much debris on the floor, it can be loosened with a shovel or chopper and sprinkled with the drug separately.
Chicken from the chicken coop must be removed before processing. The preparation from fleas is diluted in the required concentration with water and sprayed on all surfaces in the hen house, after which it is left for several hours so that all parasites are poisoned. After that, all rubbish is taken out of the chicken coop, thorough cleaning is carried out in it, the floor is washed.
It is not always possible to withdraw chicken fleas from the first time. For this reason, the treatment of the chicken coop should be repeated after two to three weeks, allowing all surviving pupae to turn into adult fleas - at the pupal stage parasites are least susceptible to insecticides.
How to protect a chicken coop from fleas?
Getting rid of chicken fleas is only part of the task. It is much more difficult to prevent their reproduction in the henhouse. There is one reliable and proven in practice and time solution - to constantly maintain the cleanliness of the room. In this case, even if the parasites enter the coop with new birds or migratory sparrows, they will not reproduce here, since larvae and pupae will be constantly removed from the room.
Measures and technologies for the permanent processing of premises with insecticides are developed only for industrial hen houses, and in private part-time farms they are too time consuming and unnecessary. Therefore, it is much easier and safer for farmers to take out trash and litter from the hen house on a regular basis, and sprinkle fresh sawdust on the floor, instead of fighting fleas in chickens with the help of chemistry.
In addition, you can protect your hens from blood-sucking parasites by laying out in the hen-house brooms made of fresh wormwood and tansy - the smells of these herbs discourage many insects, and fleas including. Thanks to such measures, chickens will be more securely protected by fleas.